A cikin tetrapods, kashin mahaifa (masu ɗaya: vertebra ) sune kashin wuyan wuyansa, nan da nan ƙasa da kwanyar . Truncal vertebrae (rabu zuwa thoracic da lumbar vertebrae a cikin dabbobi masu shayarwa ) kwance caudal (zuwa wutsiya) na mahaifa na mahaifa.[1] A cikin nau'in sauropsid, ƙwanƙarar ƙwayar mahaifa tana ɗauke da haƙarƙarin mahaifa . A cikin kadangaru da dinosaurs na saurishian, haƙarƙarin mahaifa suna da girma; a cikin tsuntsaye, ƙananan su ne kuma gaba ɗaya sun haɗa su zuwa kashin baya. Hanyoyin juzu'i na vertebral na dabbobi masu shayarwa sun yi kama da hakarkarin mahaifa na sauran amniotes .[ana buƙatar hujja] shayarwa suna da kashin mahaifa guda bakwai, tare da sani guda uku kawai da aka sani sune manatee mai shida, sloth mai yatsu biyu tare da biyar ko shida, da ramin ƙafa uku tare da tara.[2][3]

Wikidata.svgCervical vertebrae
bone (en) Fassara da class of anatomical entity (en) Fassara
Cervical vertebrae animation small.gif
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na vertebra (en) Fassara da particular anatomical entity (en) Fassara
Ta biyo baya thoracic vertebrae (en) Fassara
Anatomical location (en) Fassara cervical spine (en) Fassara
NCI Thesaurus ID (en) Fassara C12693

A cikin mutane, ƙananan ƙwayar mahaifa sune mafi ƙanƙanta na gaskiya kuma za'a iya bambanta su da sauri daga yankunan thoracic ko lumbar ta hanyar kasancewar wani nau'i (rami) a cikin kowane tsari mai juyayi, ta hanyar da vertebral artery, vertebral veins, da ƙananan baya . cervical ganglion wuce. Ragowar wannan labarin yana mai da hankali ne kan ilimin halittar ɗan adam.

TsarinGyara

 
Ra'ayin gefe na kashin baya na mahaifa
 
Duk da bambancin tsayin wuyan wuyansa, okapi (hagu) da raƙuma (dama) dukansu suna da kashin mahaifa guda bakwai. Giraffe ta wuyansa yana elongated ta heterochrony, tsawo na lokaci don ci gaban amfrayo na waɗannan kasusuwa.[4]

Ta hanyar al'ada, ana ƙididdige kashin mahaifa, tare da na farko (C1) mafi kusa da kwanyar kuma mafi girma masu lambobi (C2-C7) suna tafiya daga kwanyar da ƙasa da kashin baya. An kwatanta halayen gaba ɗaya na kashin mahaifa na uku zuwa na shida a nan. Kashin baya na farko, na biyu, da na bakwai na ban mamaki ne, kuma an yi dalla-dalla daga baya.

  • Jikin waɗannan kashin baya huɗu ƙanana ne, kuma sun fi girma daga gefe zuwa gefe fiye da gaba zuwa baya.
    • Fuskokin gaba da na baya suna kwance kuma suna da zurfin daidai; na farko an sanya shi a matakin ƙasa fiye da na ƙarshe, kuma iyakarta ta ƙasa tana tsawaita zuwa ƙasa, ta yadda za ta mamaye babba da gaba na vertebra a ƙasa.
    • Saman saman yana jujjuyawa ne, kuma yana gabatar da lebe mai fa'ida a kowane gefe.
    • Ƙarƙashin saman ƙasa mai maƙalli ne daga gaba zuwa baya, maɗaukaki daga gefe zuwa gefe, kuma yana gabatar da maƙarƙashiya a kaikaice waɗanda ke karɓar daidaitattun leɓuna na gindin kashin baya.
  • Ana karkatar da ƙafafu a gefe da baya, kuma suna jingina ga jiki a tsakiyar tsakiyar iyakokinsa na sama da na ƙasa, ta yadda maɗaukakin kashin baya ya yi zurfi kamar na ƙasa, amma yana da, a lokaci guda, mafi ƙunci.
  • Laminae suna kunkuntar kuma sun fi ƙasa fiye da ƙasa; gorar kashin baya babba ce kuma tana da siffa mai kusurwa uku.
  • Tsarin spinous gajere ne kuma bifid, rabe-raben biyu galibi suna da girman rashin daidaito. Saboda matakan da ake yi na spinous suna da gajeren gajere, wasu tsokoki na sama ( trapezius da splenius capitis ) suna haɗe zuwa ligament nuchal maimakon kai tsaye zuwa ga vertebrae; ligament na nuchal kanta yana haɗawa da matakai masu juyayi na C2-C7 da kuma zuwa ga tubercle na baya na atlas.
  • Mafi girma da ƙananan matakai na articular na mahaifa na mahaifa sun haɗu a kan ko dai ko bangarorin biyu don samar da ginshiƙai na articular, ginshiƙan kashi wanda ke aiki a gefe daga mahaɗin pedicle da lamina.
  • Fuskokin articular suna da lebur kuma suna da siffa mai kamanni:
    • babbar fuska a baya, sama, da ɗan tsaka-tsaki.
    • fuskar maras kyau a gaba, ƙasa, da ɗan gefe.
  • Hanyoyin da ke jujjuyawar suna da kowane nau'i na foramen transversarium , wanda, a cikin babba shida vertebrae, ya ba da nassi zuwa vertebral artery da jijiya, kazalika da plexus na tausayi jijiyoyi . Kowane tsari ya ƙunshi ɓangaren gaba da na baya. Waɗannan sassan biyu suna haɗuwa, a waje da ƙorafi, ta wani shinge na ƙashi wanda ke nuna sulcus mai zurfi a saman samansa don wucewar jijiyar kashin baya
    • Bangaren baya shine homologue na haƙarƙari a cikin yankin thoracic, don haka ana kiran shi tsarin farashi ko ƙimar farashi . Yana tasowa daga gefen jiki, an kai shi a gefe a gaban farar fata, kuma ya ƙare a cikin tubercle, tubercle na gaba .
    • Bangaren baya, tsarin juyawa na gaskiya, yana fitowa daga kashin baya a bayan farar fata kuma ana yin gaba da gaba; yana ƙarewa a cikin bututun da ba a kwance ba, tubercle na baya .
    • The anterior tubercle of the sixth cervical vertebra is known as the carotid tubercle or Chassaignac tubercle (for Édouard Chassaignac). This separates the carotid artery from the vertebral artery and the carotid artery can be massaged against this tubercle to relieve the symptoms of supraventricular tachycardia. The carotid tubercle is also used as a landmark for anaesthesia of the brachial plexus and cervical plexus.

Jijiyoyin kashin baya na mahaifa suna fitowa daga saman kashin mahaifa. Misali, jijiya na kashin baya 3 (C3) ta wuce sama da C3.

Atlas da axisGyara

Atlas (C1) da axis (C2) su ne mafi girman kashin baya.

Atlas (C1) shine mafi girman vertebra, kuma tare da axis yana samar da haɗin gwiwa wanda ke haɗa kwanyar da kashin baya . Ba shi da jikin kashin baya, tsari mai juyayi, da fayafai ko dai babba ko ƙasa da shi. Yana da kama da zobe kuma ya ƙunshi baka na gaba, baka na baya, da talakawa biyu na gefe.

Axis (C2) yana samar da pivot wanda atlas ke juyawa akansa. Mafi mahimmancin halayen wannan kashi shine tsarin tsarin odontoid mai karfi (dens) wanda ke tashi a tsaye daga saman saman jiki kuma yana bayyana tare da C1. Jiki yana da zurfi a gaba fiye da baya, kuma yana tsawaita ƙasa gabaɗaya har ya mamaye ɓangaren sama da na gaba na vertebra na uku.

Vertebra yana da girmaGyara

 
Matsayin C7 da aka nuna da ja.

Vertebra prominens, ko C7, yana da tsayayyen tsari mai tsayi kuma sanannen kashin baya, wanda zai iya fitowa daga saman fata. Wani lokaci, ƙwayar mahaifa ta bakwai tana haɗuwa da ƙananan haƙarƙari mara kyau, wanda aka sani da ƙwayar mahaifa, wanda ke tasowa daga tushen tushen tsarin mai juyayi. Wadannan haƙarƙari yawanci ƙanana ne, amma suna iya damfara tasoshin jini lokaci-lokaci (kamar jijiya na subclavian ko jijiya na subclavian) ko jijiyoyi a cikin plexus na brachial, haifar da ciwo, rashin tausayi, tingling, da rauni a cikin babba, yanayin da aka sani da ciwo na thoracic outlet syndrome. . Da wuya, wannan haƙarƙari yana faruwa a cikin biyu.

Dogon tsari mai kaurin kai na C7 yana da kauri kuma yana kusan kwance a cikin shugabanci. Ba a bifurcated ba, kuma yana ƙarewa a cikin tubercle wanda ligamentum nuchae ke haɗawa da shi. Wannan tsari ba koyaushe shine mafi shaharar tsarin tafiyar da baya ba, ana samun kusan kashi 70% na lokaci, C6 ko T1 na iya zama mafi shahara a wasu lokuta.

Transverse tafiyar matakai ne na babba girma; Tushensu na baya manya ne kuma fitattu, yayin da na gaba kuma ƙanana ne da alama. Babban saman kowanne yawanci yana da sulcus mara zurfi don jijiya na kashin baya na takwas, kuma ƙarshensa ba safai yake ba da alama fiye da bifurcation ba.

Ƙaƙƙarfan maɓuɓɓugar ruwa na iya zama babba kamar yadda yake a cikin sauran kashin mahaifa, amma gabaɗaya ya fi ƙanƙanta a ɗaya ko bangarorin biyu; lokaci-lokaci, yana ninka biyu, wani lokacin kuma ba ya nan.

A gefen hagu, lokaci-lokaci yana ba da hanya zuwa jijiyar vertebral; akai-akai, jijiyar kashin baya yana ratsa ta ta bangarorin biyu, amma tsarin da aka saba shine duka biyun arteries da jijiyoyi su wuce a gaban hanyar da ke jujjuyawar, ba ta hanyar magudanar ruwa ba.

AikiGyara

Motsin nodding kai yana faruwa ne ta hanyar jujjuyawa da tsawo a haɗin gwiwar atlanto-occipital tsakanin atlas da kashin occipital . Duk da haka, kashin mahaifa yana da kwatankwacin wayar hannu, kuma wasu sassa na wannan motsi saboda jujjuyawa da tsawo na ginshiƙin kashin baya kanta. Wannan motsi tsakanin atlas da kashi occipital galibi ana kiransa da "eh haɗin gwiwa", saboda yanayinsa na iya motsa kai sama da ƙasa.

Motsi na girgiza ko jujjuya kai hagu da dama yana faruwa kusan gaba ɗaya a haɗin gwiwa tsakanin atlas da axis, haɗin gwiwa na atlanto-axial . Ƙananan juzu'i na ginshiƙan kashin baya kanta yana taimakawa wajen motsi. Ana kiran wannan motsi tsakanin atlas da axis a matsayin "babu haɗin gwiwa", saboda yanayinsa na iya jujjuya kai ta hanyar gefe zuwa gefe.

Muhimmancin asibitiGyara

Canje-canje na lalacewa na mahaifa yana tasowa daga yanayi irin su spondylosis, stenosis na intervertebral discs, da samuwar osteophytes . Ana ganin canje-canje a kan radiyo, waɗanda aka yi amfani da su a cikin tsarin ƙididdiga daga 0-4 wanda ke fitowa daga canje-canje (0) zuwa farkon tare da ƙananan ci gaba na osteophytes (1) zuwa m tare da ƙayyadaddun osteophytes (2) zuwa matsakaici tare da ƙarin stenosis sararin diski. ko kunkuntar (3) zuwa mataki na manyan osteophytes da yawa, matsananciyar kunkuntar sararin diski, da kuma mafi tsanani sclerosis ( 4).[5][6][7]

Raunin da aka yi wa kashin baya na mahaifa ya zama ruwan dare a matakin ƙwayar mahaifa na biyu, amma raunin da ba a sani ba ne. C4 da C5 sune wuraren da ke ganin mafi girman adadin raunin kashin mahaifa.[8]

Idan ya faru, duk da haka, yana iya haifar da mutuwa ko nakasa mai zurfi, gami da gurgunta hannaye, ƙafafu, da diaphragm, wanda ke haifar da gazawar numfashi .

Alamomin rauni na yau da kullun sun haɗa da karyewar odontoid da karayar mai rataye, duka biyun ana bi da su tare da rashin motsi a cikin abin wuya na mahaifa ko takalmin Halo .

Al'adar gama gari ita ce hana kashin mahaifa na mara lafiya don hana ƙarin lalacewa yayin jigilar zuwa asibiti. An yi nazarin wannan aikin kwanan nan yayin da adadin raunin raunin da ya faru na kashin baya zai iya zama ƙasa da 2% a cikin marasa lafiya marasa motsi. A cikin kawar da kashin mahaifa, nazarin Kanada ya haɓaka Dokar C-Spine ta Kanada (CCR) don likitoci su yanke shawarar wanda ya kamata ya sami hoton rediyo.[9]

Alamomin ƙasaGyara

Ana yawan amfani da ginshiƙin kashin baya azaman alamar jikin mutum . Wannan ya haɗa da:

  • A C1, gindin hanci da taurin baki
  • A C2, hakora na rufaffiyar baki
  • A C3, mandible da hyoid kashi
  • A C4, jijiya carotid na kowa ya bifurcates.
  • Daga C4-5, guringuntsi na thyroid [10]
  • Daga C6-7, guringuntsi na cricoid [10]
  • A C6, esophagus yana ci gaba da ci gaba tare da laryngopharynx kuma inda maƙogwaro ya ci gaba da ci gaba da trachea . Hakanan shine matakin da bugun jini na carotid zai iya zama mai jujjuyawa akan tsarin juzu'i na C6 vertebrae.

Ƙarin hotunaGyara

ManazartaGyara

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  2. Varela-Lasheras, Irma; Bakker, Alexander J; Van Der Mije, Steven D; Metz, Johan AJ; Van Alphen, Joris; Galis, Frietson (2011). "Breaking evolutionary and pleiotropic constraints in mammals: On sloths, manatees and homeotic mutations". EvoDevo. 2: 11. doi:10.1186/2041-9139-2-11. PMC 3120709. PMID 21548920.
  3. Galis, Frietson (1999). "Why do almost all mammals have seven cervical vertebrae? Developmental constraints, Hox genes, and cancer". J. Exp. Zool. 285 (1): 19–26. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-010X(19990415)285:1<19::AID-JEZ3>3.0.CO;2-Z. PMID 10327647.
  4. Hillis, David M. (May 2011). Principles of Life. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 280–. ISBN 978-1-4641-6298-5. Archived from the original on 2018-05-06.
  5. Ofiram, Elisha; Garvey, Timothy A; Schwender, James D; Denis, Francis; Perra, Joseph H; Transfeldt, Ensor E; Winter, Robert B; Wroblewski, Jill M (2009). "Cervical degenerative index: a new quantitative radiographic scoring system for cervical spondylosis with interobserver and intraobserver reliability testing". Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. 10 (1): 21–26. doi:10.1007/s10195-008-0041-3. PMC 2657349. PMID 19384631.
  6. Garfin, Steven R; Bono, Christopher M. "Degenerative Cervical Spine Disorders". spineuniverse. Archived from the original on 28 October 2016. Retrieved 25 October 2016.
  7. Christie, A; Läubli, R; Guzman, R; Berlemann, U; Moore, R J; Schroth, G; Vock, P; Lövblad, K O (2005). "Degeneration of the cervical disc: histology compared with radiography and magnetic resonance imaging" (PDF). Neuroradiology. 47 (10): 721–729. doi:10.1007/s00234-005-1412-6. PMID 16136264. S2CID 10970503.
  8. 2012 Annual Report Archived 2014-02-22 at the Wayback Machine, Table 64, page 66
  9. "Canadian C-Spine Rule - Emergency Medicine Research - Ottawa Hospital Research Institute". www.ohri.ca. Archived from the original on 14 May 2017. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Template:MedicalMnemonics