Haruffa ƙayyadaddun saiti ne na ainihin rubutun jadawali (wanda ake kira su daharuffa ) waɗanda ke wakiltar (phonemes) a harshen turanci na wasu harsunan magana. [1] Ba duk tsarin rubutu ke wakiltar harshe ta wannan hanya ba; a cikin syllabary, kowane hali yana wakiltar harafi, kuma tsarin bayanai yana amfani da haruffa don wakiltar kalmomi, morphemes, ko wasu raka'o'in fassarar. [2] [3]

haruffa
type of writing system (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na writing system (en) Fassara, class (en) Fassara da segmental writing system (en) Fassara
Bangare na alphabetic writing system (en) Fassara
Amfani wajen alphabetic writing system (en) Fassara da alphabetical order (en) Fassara
Tarihin maudu'i history of the alphabet (en) Fassara
Charles Morton 's 1759 sabunta sigar Edward Bernard 's "Orbis eruditi", kwatanta duk sanannun haruffa kamar na 1689.
Jaririn Terracotta (wataƙila inkwell ) tare da abecedarium na haruffan Etruscan, 630-620 KZ.

Rubutun sauti na farko, rubutun Proto-Sinaitic, wanda daga baya aka sani da haruffan Phoenician, ana ɗaukarsa a matsayin haruffan farko kuma shine kakan mafi yawan haruffan zamani, gami da Larabci, Cyrillic, Greek, Ibrananci, Latin, da yuwuwar Brahmic. [4] [5] Ma'aikatan Semitic da bayi ne suka ƙirƙira shi a cikin Tsibirin Sinai (a matsayin rubutun Proto-Sinaitic), ta zaɓar ƙaramin adadin hiroglyphs da aka saba gani a kewayen Masarautar su don bayyana sautuna, sabanin ma'anar harsunan Kan'aniyawa. [6] [7] Duk da haka, Peter T. Daniels ya bambanta abugida, wani nau'i na graphemes wanda ke wakiltar haruffan consonants waɗanda masu zane-zane suka gyara don wakiltar wasulan (kamar a cikin Devanagari da sauran rubutun Kudancin Asiya), abjad, wanda haruffa yawanci ko keɓaɓɓen wakiltar consonants (kamar a cikin ainihin Phoenician, Ibrananci ko Larabci), da haruffa, saitin zane-zane waɗanda ke wakiltar baƙaƙe da wasula. A cikin wannan kunkuntar ma'anar kalmar, farkon haruffa na gaskiya shine haruffan Helenanci, [8] wanda ya dogara akan haruffan Phoenician na farko.

Daga cikin dimbin haruffan da ake amfani da su a yau, wanda ya fi shahara shi ne haruffan Latin [9] (wanda aka samo asali daga haruffan Girkanci), wanda yanzu harsuna da yawa ke amfani da su a duk duniya, galibi tare da ƙarin haruffa ko alamomin harshe.

Haruffa yawanci ana haɗa su da daidaitaccen tsari na haruffa. Wannan ya sa su zama masu amfani don haɗakarwa, musamman ta hanyar barin kalmomi a jera su cikin tsari na haruffa. Hakanan yana nufin cewa ana iya amfani da haruffan su azaman madadin hanyar "ƙidaya" abubuwan da aka ba da oda, a cikin mahallin kamar lissafin ƙididdiga da jeri na lamba. Duk da yake yawancin haruffa suna da haruffa da suka haɗa da layi, akwai kuma keɓancewa kamar haruffan da ake amfani da su a cikin Braille.

Asalin kalma gyara sashe

Kalmar Ingilishi ta zo cikin Turanci ta Tsakiya daga kalmar Late Latin haruffa, wanda kuma ya samo asali daga Girkanci ἀλφάβητος (alphabētos), an yi shi daga haruffa biyu na farko, alpha (α) da beta (β). Sunayen haruffan Helenanci sun fito ne daga haruffa biyu na farko na haruffan Phoenician; aleph, wanda kuma yana nufin sa, da fare, wanda kuma yana nufin gida.[ana buƙatar hujja]




Manazarta gyara sashe

 
Samfuran nau'ikan haruffa da harsuna, na William Caslon, wanda ya kafa wasiƙa; daga 1728 Cyclopaedia
 
Samfurin rubutun Proto-Sinaitic, ɗayan farkon (idan ba na farko ba) rubutun sauti
  1. Pulgram, Ernst (1951). "Phoneme and Grapheme: A Parallel". WORD. 7 (1): 15–20. doi:10.1080/00437956.1951.11659389. ISSN 0043-7956.Empty citation (help)
  2. Daniels & Bright 1996
  3. Merald E. Invalid |url-status=Bouma (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)
  4. Coulmas 1989
  5. Daniels & Bright 1996
  6. Daniels & Bright 1996, pp. 92–96Empty citation (help)
  7. Goldwasser, O. (2012). "The Miners that Invented the Alphabet - a Response to Christopher Rollston". Journal of Ancient Egyptian Interconnections. 4 (3): 9–22. doi:10.2458/azu_jaei_v04i3_goldwasser.Empty citation (help)
  8. Millard 1986
  9. Haarmann 2004