Falsafa na shari'a wani reshe ne na falsafar da ke nazarin yanayin doka da dangantakar doka da sauran tsarin ka'idoji, musamman ɗabi'a da falsafar siyasa . Yana yin tambayoyi kamar "Mene ne doka?" , "Mene ne ma'auni na ingancin shari'a?", da "Menene alakar doka da ɗabi'a ?"[1][2] Ana amfani da falsafar doka da fikihu sau da yawa tare, kodayake fikihu wani lokaci ya ƙunshi nau'ikan tunani waɗanda suka dace da ilimin tattalin arziki ko zamantakewa .

Falsafar shari'a za a iya karkasu zuwa ga fikihu na nazari da fikihu na al'ada. Ilimin fikihu na nufin ayyana mene ne doka da abin da ba ita ba ta hanyar gano mahimman abubuwan doka. Sannan kuma Ilimin shari'a na al'ada yana bincika duka ƙa'idodin da ba na shari'a ba waɗanda ke tsara doka da ƙa'idodin shari'a waɗanda doka ta haifar kuma suna jagorantar aikin ɗan adam. [3][4][5]

Fikihun nazariGyara

Ƙididdigar fikihu na neman samar da cikakken bayani game da yanayin doka ta hanyar kayan aikin bincike na ra'ayi . Asusu na gabaɗaya ne a ma'anar niyya ga fasalulluka na shari'a na duniya waɗanda ke riƙe a kowane lokaci da wurare. Ganin cewa lauyoyi suna da sha'awar abin da doka ta ke kan wani lamari na musamman a wani yanki na musamman, masana falsafa na sha'awar gano fasalin dokar da aka raba a cikin al'adu, lokuta, da wurare. A dunkule, waɗannan abubuwan tushe na doka suna ba da nau'in ma'anar falsafar duniya. Tsarin gaba ɗaya yana bawa masana falsafa damar yin tambayoyi game da, alal misali, abin da ya raba doka da ɗabi'a, siyasa, ko dalili mai amfani. [6] Sau da yawa, masana a fannin suna kyautata zaton cewa doka tana da sifofi na musamman da suka raba ta da sauran al’amura, ko da yake ba duka suke da ra’ayi iri ɗaya ba.

Yayin da a al'ada filin ya mayar da hankali kan bayar da lissafin yanayin doka, wasu malaman sun fara nazarin yanayin yankunan da ke cikin doka, misali dokar azabtarwa, dokar kwangila, ko dokar laifuka. Wadannan malamai suna mayar da hankali kan abin da ya sa wasu sassa na doka suka bambanta da yadda wani yanki ya bambanta da wani. Wani yanki na bincike na musamman shine banbance tsakanin dokar azabtarwa da dokar laifuka, kuma wanda gabaɗaya ya shafi bambanci tsakanin dokar farar hula da na laifuka.

Mazhabobi da dama sun taso a kan yanayin shari'a, wadanda suka fi tasiri su ne:

  • Ka'idar shari'a ta dabi'a, wanda ke tabbatar da cewa doka ta kasance a cikin yanayi kuma tana da halin kirki, aƙalla a wani ɓangare. A kan wannan ra'ayi, yayin da 'yan majalisa za su iya kafawa har ma da samun nasarar aiwatar da dokokin lalata, irin waɗannan dokokin ba su da inganci. Ra'ayi yana kama da maxim: doka ta rashin adalci ba doka ta gaskiya ba ce, inda 'zalunci' na nufin 'saɓani da ka'idar halitta.' Ka'idar ka'idar dabi'a ta samo asali ne a cikin falsafar Thomas Aquinas .to A ƙarshen karni na 20, John Finnis ya farfado da sha'awar ka'idar kuma ya ba da sake fasalin zamani.
  • Legal positivism, wanda shine ra'ayi cewa doka ta dogara da farko akan abubuwan zamantakewa. A al'adance an haɗa ƙwaƙƙwaran shari'a tare da koyaswar koyarwa guda uku: ƙayyadaddun ƙayyadaddun ƙa'idodi, ƙayyadaddun rabewa, da ƙa'idar hankali. Ƙididdigar ƙa'idar ta ce hanyar da ta dace don sanin ko umarni doka ce ita ce duba tushen umarnin. Ƙididdigar ta yi iƙirarin cewa gaskiyar cewa jami'in da ya dace ya bayar da umarnin a cikin halaltacciyar gwamnati, alal misali, shine ke ƙayyade ingancin umarnin na shari'a-ba cancantar ɗabi'a ko aiki na umarnin ba. Ƙididdigar rabuwa ta bayyana cewa doka ta bambanta da ɗabi'a. [2] Duk da yake doka na iya ƙunsar ɗabi'a, ƙayyadaddun rabe-raben ya ce "ba lallai ba ne gaskiya ce da dokoki ke sake haifarwa ko kuma gamsar da wasu buƙatun ɗabi'a, kodayake sun sha yin haka." Masu ra'ayin shari'a ba su yarda ba game da iyakar rubutun rabuwa. Keɓaɓɓen masu fa'ida na shari'a, musamman Joseph Raz, sun wuce ma'auni na ƙididdiga kuma sun musanta cewa yana yiwuwa ɗabi'a ta zama wani ɓangare na doka kwata-kwata. Ƙididdigar hankali ta bayyana cewa alkalai suna ƙirƙirar sabuwar doka lokacin da aka ba su hankali don yanke hukunci a kan shari'o'in inda dokar da ta kasance ta kasa tantance sakamakon. Wanda ya fara ba da goyon bayan shari'a shine John Austin wanda rubutun Jeremy Bentham ya rinjaye shi a farkon karni na 19. Austin ya yi imanin cewa dokar ita ce umarnin sarki mai goyon bayan barazanar azabtarwa. Kyakkyawar shari'a ta zamani ta daɗe ta watsar da wannan ra'ayi. A cikin karni na ashirin, masu ra'ayi guda biyu suna da tasiri sosai a filin: Hans Kelsen da HLA Hart . Kelsen ya fi tasiri ga ra'ayinsa na ' Grundnorm ,' ƙa'ida ta ƙarshe kuma ta asali, wanda wasu masana, musamman a Turai, suka yarda da su a yau. A cikin duniyar Anglophone, Hart ya kasance malami mafi tasiri. Hart ya yi watsi da da'awar farko na cewa takunkumi yana da mahimmanci ga doka kuma a maimakon haka ya bayar da hujjar cewa doka ta dogara ne akan ka'ida. A cewar Hart, doka wani tsari ne na ka'idoji na farko da ke jagorantar tafiyar da batutuwan doka, da kuma ka'idoji na biyu waɗanda ke tsara yadda za'a canza ƙa'idodin farko, tantancewa da yanke hukunci. Ka'idar Hart, ko da yake ana sha'awar ta, ta haifar da muhawara mai karfi tsakanin masana falsafa na karni na ashirin da suka hada da Ronald Dworkin, John Rawls, Joseph Raz, da John Finnis.
  • Haƙiƙanin shari'a, wanda ke tabbatar da cewa doka ta samo asali ne daga yanke shawara da kotuna, tilasta bin doka, da lauyoyi suka yi, waɗanda galibi ana yanke hukunci akan sabani ko dalilai na sabani. Bisa ga gaskiyar shari'a, doka ba tsarin hankali ba ne na ka'idoji da ka'idoji. Haƙiƙanin shari'a yana da mahimmanci ga ra'ayin cewa doka tana da yanayin da za'a iya yin nazari a cikin ƙayyadaddun bayanai. Madadin haka, masu sahihancin shari'a suna ba da shawarar wata hanya ta ƙwaƙƙwaran fikihu da aka kafa a cikin ilimin zamantakewa da ainihin aikin doka a duniya. Don haka, sau da yawa ana danganta gaskiyar shari'a da ilimin zamantakewa na doka . A cikin Amurka, gaskiyar shari'a ta sami shahara sosai a ƙarshen karni na 19 tare da Oliver Wendell Holmes da John Chipman Gray . Gaskiyar doka ta zama tasiri a cikin Scandinavia a cikin karni na 20 tare da Axel Hägerström .
  • Tafsirin shari'a, wanda ya musanta cewa doka ta samo asali ne saboda doka dole ne ta dogara da fassarar ɗan adam wanda ke jagorantar ƙa'idodin ɗabi'a na al'ummomi. Ganin cewa alkalai suna da ikon yanke hukunci ta hanyar fiye da ɗaya, fassarar shari'a ta ce alkalai suna yanke hukunci bisa ga dabi'un da suka dace ta hanyar da ta fi dacewa da kiyaye ƙa'idodin ɗabi'a, hujjojin hukumomi, da ayyukan zamantakewa na al'ummomin da suke cikin su. Ya yi daidai da tafsirin shari’a wanda ba zai iya sanin ko al’umma tana da tsarin shari’a da ake aiki da su ba, ko kuma mene ne daga cikin dokokinta, har sai an san wasu haqiqanin gaskiya na kyawawan halaye game da dalilan da suka shafi ayyuka a cikin wannan al’umma. Sabanin yadda shari’a ta tabbata ko haqiqanin shari’a, mai yiyuwa ne mai tafsirin shari’a ya yi iƙirarin cewa babu wani a cikin al’umma da ya san mene ne dokokinta (saboda babu wanda zai iya sanin mafi kyawun hujjar ayyukanta. ) Tafsirin shari'a ya samo asali ne daga Ronald Dworkin a ƙarshen karni na 20 a cikin littafinsa na Daular Shari'a .

A cikin 'yan shekarun nan, muhawara game da yanayin shari'a ya zama mafi kyau. Muhawara ɗaya mai mahimmanci ta wanzu a cikin kyakkyawan yanayin shari'a game da rabuwar doka da ɗabi'a. Keɓaɓɓen masu fa'ida na shari'a suna da'awar cewa ingancin doka na ƙa'ida ba zai taɓa dogaro da daidaitaccen ɗabi'arsa ba. Masu fafutukar tabbatar da doka da suka hada da sun yi iƙirarin cewa la'akari da ɗabi'a na iya ƙayyadad da ingancin doka ta ƙa'ida, amma ba lallai ba ne haka lamarin yake. Positivism ya fara a matsayin ka'idar haɗawa; to amma Kuma ƙwararrun masu fafutukar tabbatar da doka, gami da Joseph Raz, John Gardner, da Leslie Green, daga baya sun yi watsi da ra'ayin.

Muhawara ta biyu mai mahimmanci, wacce galibi ake kira " Muhawarar Hart-Dworkin ", ta shafi yaƙi tsakanin manyan makarantu biyu a ƙarshen 20th da farkon karni na 21st, fassarar shari'a da tabbataccen doka.

Fikihu na al'adaGyara

Baya ga fikihu na nazari, falsafar shari'a kuma ta shafi ka'idodin doka. "Hukunce-hukuncen shari'a na al'ada sun haɗa da na al'ada, kimantawa, da kuma wasu abubuwan da aka rubuta game da doka." Misali, Menene manufa ko manufar doka? Waɗanne dabaru na ɗabi'a ko na siyasa ne ke ba da tushe ga doka? Hanyoyi guda uku (3) sun yi tasiri a falsafar ɗabi'a da ta siyasa ta wannan zamani, kuma waɗannan hanyoyin suna nunawa a cikin ka'idodin doka:[ana buƙatar hujja]

  • Utilitarianism shine ra'ayin cewa ya kamata a tsara dokoki don samar da sakamako mafi kyau. A tarihi, tunanin mai amfani game da doka yana da alaƙa da masanin falsafa Jeremy Bentham . Sannan A cikin ka'idar shari'a ta zamani, ƙwararrun masana waɗanda ke aiki a cikin doka da al'adar tattalin arziƙi suna yin nasara akai-akai akan tsarin amfani.
  • Deontology shine ra'ayi cewa ya kamata dokoki su nuna nauyin da ke wuyanmu na kiyaye 'yancin kai da haƙƙin wasu. A tarihi, tunanin deontological game da doka yana da alaƙa da Immanuel Kant, wanda ya ƙirƙira ɗaya fitacciyar ka'idar deontological na doka. Ana iya samun wata hanyar deontological a cikin aikin masanin falsafa na zamani Ronald Dworkin .
  • Ka'idodin ɗabi'a na Aretaic kamar ɗabi'un kyawawan halaye na zamani sun jaddada matsayin ɗabi'a a cikin ɗabi'a. Shari'a ta gaskiya ita ce ra'ayin cewa ya kamata dokoki su inganta haɓaka halayen kirki ta 'yan ƙasa. A tarihi, wannan hanyar tana da alaƙa da Aristotle . Fikihun kyawawan dabi'u na zamani ya samo asali ne daga aikin falsafa a kan kyawawan dabi'u su.

Akwai wasu hanyoyin da yawa na al'ada ga falsafar doka, gami da nazarin shari'a mai mahimmanci da ka'idodin 'yanci na doka .

Hanyoyi na falsafa don matsalolin shari'aGyara

Masana falsafa na shari'a sun damu da matsalolin falsafa iri-iri da suka taso musamman batutuwa na shari'a, kamar dokar tsarin mulki, Dokar Kwangila, Dokar Laifuka, da Dokar Ta'addanci. Don haka, falsafar doka tana magana game da batutuwa daban-daban kamar ka'idodin dokar kwangila, ra'ayoyin hukunci mai laifi, ka'idodin azabtarwa, da tambayar ko nazarin shari'a ya dace Akai.

Fitattun malaman falsafa na dokaGyara

Duba wasu abubuwanGyara

ManazartaGyara

  1. "Philosophy of law". Encyclopedia Britannica (in Turanci). Retrieved 2019-05-15.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Himma, Kenneth Einar (2019-05-15). "Philosophy of Law". The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  3. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named :0
  4. Postema, Gerald J. (2011). "Economic Jurisprudence". In Postema, G.J. (ed.). A Treatise of Legal Philosophy and General Jurisprudence. A Treatise of Legal Philosophy and General Jurisprudence: Volume 11: Legal Philosophy in the Twentieth Century: The Common Law World (in Turanci). Springer Netherlands. pp. 181–211. doi:10.1007/978-90-481-8960-1_5. ISBN 9789048189601.
  5. Kornhauser, Lewis (2017), "The Economic Analysis of Law", in Zalta, Edward N. (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2017 ed.), Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, retrieved 2019-05-17
  6. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named :2

Ci gaba da karatuGyara

  • Thomas Aquinas, Summa Contra Al'ummai ( bugu da yawa).
  • Hadley Arkes, Abubuwan Farko (Princeton, New Jersey: Jami'ar Princeton Press, 1986).
  • Ronald Dworkin, Ɗaukar Haƙƙin Mahimmanci (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Jami'ar Harvard Press, 1977).
  • Ronald Dworkin, Matsalolin Ka'ida (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Jami'ar Harvard Press, 1986).
  • Ronald Dworkin, Daular Shari'a (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Jami'ar Harvard Press, 1986).
  • Ronald Dworkin, Dokar 'Yanci: Karatun halin kirki na Tsarin Mulki na Amurka (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Jami'ar Harvard Press, 1997).
  • Lon L. Fuller, Halin Doka (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1965).
  • John Chipman Gray, Yanayin da Tushen Doka (Peter Smith, 1972, sake bugawa).
  • HLA Hart, The Concept of Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1961).
  • HLA Hart, Hukunci da Nauyi (Oxford: Jami'ar Oxford Press, 1968).
  • Sterling Harwood, Ayyukan Shari'a: Ƙarfafa Tsaro (London: Austin & Winfield Publishers, 1996).
  • Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Falsafa na Dama (Jami'ar Oxford 1967)
  • Ian Farrell & Morten Ebbe Juul Nielsen, Falsafar Shari'a: Tambayoyi 5, New York: Latsa Kai tsaye, Afrilu 2007
  • Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., The Common Law (Dover, 1991, sake bugawa).
  • Immanuel Kant, Metaphysics of Morals (Rukunan Dama) (Jami'ar Cambridge Press 2000, sake bugawa).
  • Hans Kelsen, Pure Theory of Law (Lawbook Exchange Ltd., 2005, sake bugawa).
  • Catharine MacKinnon, Zuwa Ka'idar Mata ta Jiha. (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1989).
  • Duncan Kennedy, A Critique of Adjudication (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1998).
  • David Lyons, Da'a & Dokokin Doka (Cambridge: Jami'ar Cambridge University Press, 1984).
  • David Lyons, Halin halin kirki na Ka'idar Shari'a (Cambridge: Jami'ar Jami'ar Cambridge, 1993).
  • Neil MacCormick, Hukuncin Shari'a da Ka'idar Shari'a (Oxford: Jami'ar Oxford Press, 1979).
  • Joseph Raz, The Authority of Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983, sake bugawa).
  • Robert S. Summers, Instrumentalism da Ka'idar Shari'a ta Amurka (Ithaca, NY: Jami'ar Cornell Press, 1982).
  • Robert S. Summers, Lon Fuller (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1984).
  • Roberto Mangabeira Unger, The Critical Legal Studies Movement (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1986).
  • Jeffrie G. Murphy da Jules L. Coleman, Falsafar Doka: Gabatarwa ga Shari'a (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1989).

Hanyoyin haɗi na wajeGyara

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