Cutar da ake kamuwa ta jima'i

Cututtukan da ake samu ta hanyar jima'i (STIs), wanda kuma ake kira cututtuka ne da ke yaduwa ta hanyar jima'i (STDs), cututtuka ne da ake yaɗa su ta hanyar jima'i, musamman jima'i na farji, jima'i na dubura da kuma jima'i na baki.[1][2] STIs sau da yawa ba sa haifar da bayyanar cututtuka da farko,[1] wanda ke haifar da haɗari mafi girma na watsa cutar ga wasu.[3][4] Alamun STIs na iya haɗawa da fiɗar al'aura, fitar azzakari, gyambon ciki ko kewayen al'aura, da ciwon ƙashin ƙugu.[1] Ana iya yada STIs ga jariri kafin ko lokacin haihuwa, wanda zai iya haifar da mummunar sakamako na rashin lafiya.[1][5] Wasu STIs na iya haifar da raguwar ikon yin ciki.[1]

Fiye da ƙwayoyin cuta, ƙwayoyin cuta, da ƙwayoyin cuta daban-daban 30 ana iya yaduwa ta hanyar jima'i.[1] Kwayoyin cututtuka na STI sun hada da chlamydia, gonorrhea, da syphilis.[1] Kwayoyin cututtuka na ƙwayoyin cuta sun haɗa da cututtukan al'aura, HIV/AIDS, da warts na al'aura.[1] STIs na parasitic sun haɗa da trichomoniasis.[1] Yayin da yawanci ke yaɗuwa ta hanyar jima'i, wasu STIs na iya yaduwa ta hanyar jima'i tare da nama mai bayarwa, jini, shayarwa, ko lokacin haihuwa.[1] Gwaje-gwajen STI galibi ana samun sauƙin samuwa a cikin ƙasashen da suka ci gaba, amma galibi ba a samun su a cikin ƙasashe masu tasowa.[1]

Hanya mafi inganci don hana STIs shine rashin yin jima'i.[6] Wasu allurar rigakafi na iya rage haɗarin wasu cututtuka ciki har da hepatitis B da wasu nau'in HPV.[6] Ayyukan jima'i masu aminci, kamar amfani da kwaroron roba, samun ƙaramin adadin abokan jima'i, da kasancewa cikin alaƙar da kowane mutum yayi jima'i da ɗayan kuma yana rage haɗarin STIs.[1][6] Kaciya a cikin manya maza na iya yin tasiri don hana wasu cututtuka.[1] Yayin makaranta, ilimin jima'i na iya zama da amfani sosai.[7] Yawancin STIs ana iya warkewa ko warkewa; daga cikin cututtukan da suka fi yawa, syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, da trichomoniasis ana iya warkewa, yayin da herpes, hepatitis B, HIV/AIDS, da HPV suke da magani amma ba za a iya warkewa ba.[1] Juriya ga wasu maganin rigakafi na tasowa a tsakanin wasu kwayoyin halitta kamar gonorrhea.[8]

A cikin 2015, kusan mutane biliyan 1.1 sun kamu da cutar STI banda HIV/AIDS.[9] Kimanin miliyan 500 ne suka kamu da cutar syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia ko trichomoniasis.[1] Aƙalla ƙarin mutane miliyan 530 suna da cutar ta al'aura, kuma mata miliyan 290 suna ɗauke da kwayar cutar papilloma.[1] STIs banda HIV sun haifar da mutuwar mutane 108,000 a cikin 2015.[10] A Amurka, an sami sabbin cututtukan STI miliyan 19 a cikin 2010.[11] Takaddun tarihi na STIs sun koma aƙalla papyrus Ebers a kusa da 1550 BC da Tsohon Alkawari.[12] Sau da yawa akwai kunya da kyama da ke tattare da STIs.[1] Kalmar kamuwa da cutar ta hanyar jima'i gabaɗaya an fi fifita fiye da cututtukan da ake iya ɗauka ta hanyar jima'i ko kuma cututtukan jijiyoyin jini, kamar yadda ya haɗa da waɗanda ba su da alamun bayyanar cututtuka.[13]

ManazartaGyara

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 "Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) Fact sheet N°110". who.int. November 2013. Archived from the original on 25 November 2014. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
  2. "Sexually transmitted infections". womenshealth.gov (in Turanci). 2017-02-22. Retrieved 2017-12-08.
  3. Murray PR, Rosenthal KS, Pfaller MA (2013). Medical microbiology (7th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby. p. 418. ISBN 978-0-323-08692-9. Archived from the original on 2015-12-01.
  4. Goering, Richard V. (2012). Mims' medical microbiology (5th ed.). Edinburgh: Saunders. p. 245. ISBN 978-0-7234-3601-0.
  5. "Preventing Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV". HIV.gov (in Turanci). 2017-05-15. Retrieved 2017-12-08.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 "How You Can Prevent Sexually Transmitted Diseases". cdc.gov. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 31 May 2016. Archived from the original on 9 December 2014. Retrieved 13 December 2017.Template:CDC
  7. International technical guidance on sexuality education: An evidence-informed approach (PDF). Paris: UNESCO. 2018. p. 28. ISBN 978-92-3-100259-5.
  8. Centers for Disease Control Prevention (CDC) (August 2012). "Update to CDC's Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2010: oral cephalosporins no longer a recommended treatment for gonococcal infections". MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 61 (31): 590–4. PMID 22874837.
  9. Vos T, Allen C, Arora M, Barber RM, Bhutta ZA, Brown A, et al. (GBD 2015 Disease Injury Incidence Prevalence Collaborators) (October 2016). "Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015". Lancet. 388 (10053): 1545–1602. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31678-6. PMC 5055577. PMID 27733282.
  10. Wang H, Naghavi M, Allen C, Barber RM, Bhutta ZA, et al. (GBD 2015 Mortality Causes of Death Collaborators) (October 2016). "Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015". Lancet. 388 (10053): 1459–1544. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(16)31012-1. PMC 5388903. PMID 27733281.
  11. "STD Trends in the United States: 2010 National Data for Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and Syphilis". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived from the original on 9 September 2012. Retrieved 15 September 2012.
  12. Gross, Gerd; Tyring, Stephen K. (2011). Sexually transmitted infections and sexually transmitted diseases. Heidelberg: Springer Verlag. p. 20. ISBN 978-3-642-14663-3. Archived from the original on 2015-09-24.
  13. Guidelines for the management of sexually transmitted infections (PDF). Geneva: World Health Organization. 2003. p. vi. ISBN 978-92-4-154626-3. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2014-12-08.