Cizon maciji rauni ne da saran maciji ke yi, musamman macijin dafi.[1] Alamar gama gari ta cizo daga maciji mai dafin ita ce kasancewar raunukan huda biyu daga huda dabbar.[2] Wani lokaci allurar dafin daga cizon na iya faruwa.[3] Wannan na iya haifar da ja, kumburi, da zafi mai tsanani a wurin, wanda zai iya ɗaukar sa'a guda kafin ya bayyana.[2][4] Ana iya haifar da amai, duhun gani, ɗigon gaɓoɓi, da gumi.[2][4] Yawancin cizo suna kan hannu, hannaye, ko ƙafafu.[4][5] Tsoron bin cizo ya zama ruwan dare tare da alamun bugun zuciya da jin suma.[4] Dafin na iya haifar da zub da jini, gazawar koda, mummunan rashin lafiyar jiki, mutuwar nama a kusa da cizon, ko matsalolin numfashi.[2][3] Cizon cizon na iya haifar da asarar gaɓoɓi ko wasu matsaloli na yau da kullun.[3] Sakamakon ya dogara ne da nau'in maciji, wurin da ake saran jikinsa, yawan dafin da aka yi masa, da kuma lafiyar mutumin da aka cije.[6] Matsalolin sun fi girma a cikin yara fiye da manya, saboda ƙananan girman su.[3][7][8]

Cizon maciji
Viper bite.jpg
Description (en) Fassara
Iri animal bite (en) Fassara, rare intoxication (en) Fassara
envenomation (en) Fassara
Specialty (en) Fassara emergency medicine (en) Fassara
Sanadi animal attack (en) Fassara
Identifier (en) Fassara
ICD-10-CM T63.0
ICD-10 T63.0
ICD-9 989.5
DiseasesDB 29733
MedlinePlus 000031
eMedicine 000031
MeSH D012909

Cizon maciji, duka a matsayin hanyar farauta, da kuma hanyar kariya.[9] Abubuwan haɗari ga cizo sun haɗa da yin aiki a waje da hannun mutum kamar aikin gona, gandun daji, da gini.[2][3] Macizai da suka fi shiga cikin guba sun haɗa da elapids (irin su kraits, cobras da mambas), vipers, da macijin teku.[10] Yawancin nau'in macizai ba su da dafin kuma suna kashe abin da suka gani ta hanyar matse su.[4] Ana iya samun macizai masu dafi a kowace nahiya ban da Antarctica.[9] Ƙayyade nau'in maciji da ya sa cizon sau da yawa ba zai yiwu ba.[10] Hukumar lafiya ta duniya ta ce saran macizai “batun kula da lafiyar jama’a ne da aka yi watsi da su a yawancin kasashe masu zafi da na wurare masu zafi”.[8]

Rigakafin saran maciji na iya haɗawa da sanya takalman kariya, guje wa wuraren da macizai ke zaune, da rashin kula da macizai.[2] Jiyya wani bangare ya dogara da nau'in maciji.[2] Ana ba da shawarar wanke rauni da sabulu da ruwa da kuma riƙe gaɓa.[2][10] Ƙoƙarin tsotse dafin, yanke rauni da wuka, ko yin amfani da yawon shakatawa ba a ba da shawarar ba.[2] Antivenom yana da tasiri wajen hana mutuwa daga cizo; duk da haka, maganin rigakafi akai-akai yana da illa.[3][11] Nau'in maganin da ake buƙata ya dogara da nau'in maciji.[10] Lokacin da ba a san nau'in maciji ba, yawanci ana ba da maganin rigakafi bisa nau'ikan da aka sani a yankin.[10] A wasu yankuna na duniya samun nau'in rigakafin da ya dace yana da wahala kuma wannan wani bangare yana ba da gudummawa ga dalilin da yasa wasu lokuta basa aiki.[3] Wani ƙarin batu shine farashin waɗannan magunguna.[3] Antivenom yana da ɗan tasiri akan yankin da ke kusa da cizon kansa.[10] Tallafawa numfashin mutum wani lokaci ma ana buƙata.[10]

Adadin dafin maciji da ke faruwa a kowace shekara na iya kaiwa miliyan biyar.[3] Suna haifar da guba kusan miliyan 2.5 da kuma mutuwar 20,000 zuwa 125,000.[3][9] Yawan cizo da tsananin cizon ya bambanta sosai tsakanin sassa daban-daban na duniya.[9] Suna faruwa galibi a Afirka, Asiya, da Latin Amurka,[3] tare da yankunan karkara da abin ya shafa.[3][8] Mutuwa ba kasafai ba ne a Ostiraliya, Turai da Arewacin Amurka.[9][11][12] Alal misali, a Amurka, kimanin mutane dubu bakwai zuwa takwas a kowace shekara macizai suna saran su (kusan daya cikin mutane dubu 40) kuma kusan mutane biyar ne ke mutuwa (kusan mutuwar daya a cikin mutane miliyan 65).[2]

ManazartaGyara

  1. "Definition of Snakebite". www.merriam-webster.com (in Turanci). Retrieved 17 June 2019.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 "Venomous Snakes". U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. 24 February 2012. Archived from the original on 29 April 2015. Retrieved 19 May 2015.
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 "Animal bites: Fact sheet N°373". World Health Organization. February 2015. Archived from the original on 4 May 2015. Retrieved 19 May 2015.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Gold, Barry S.; Richard C. Dart; Robert A. Barish (1 April 2002). "Bites of venomous snakes". The New England Journal of Medicine. 347 (5): 347–56. doi:10.1056/NEJMra013477. PMID 12151473.
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  7. Peden, M. M. (2008). World Report on Child Injury Prevention (in Turanci). World Health Organization. p. 128. ISBN 9789241563574. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 "Snake antivenoms: Fact sheet N°337". World Health Organization. February 2015. Archived from the original on 18 April 2017. Retrieved 16 May 2017.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 Kasturiratne, A.; Wickremasinghe, A. R.; de Silva, N; Gunawardena, NK; Pathmeswaran, A; Premaratna, R; Savioli, L; Lalloo, DG; de Silva, HJ (4 November 2008). "The global burden of snakebite: a literature analysis and modelling based on regional estimates of envenoming and deaths". PLOS Medicine. 5 (11): e218. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0050218. PMC 2577696. PMID 18986210.
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 "Neglected tropical diseases: Snakebite". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 30 September 2015. Retrieved 19 May 2015.
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