Shebur kayan aiki ne don tono, ɗagawa, da motsin abubuwa masu yawa, kamar ƙasa, tsakuwa, dusar ƙanƙara, yashi dadai sauransu.

Wani mutum dauke da shebur

Yawancin shebur kayan aikin hannu ne wanda ya ƙunshi faɗuwar ruwan wuƙaƙe da aka gyara zuwa madaidaicin tsayi. Yawan shebur ɗin ana yin su ne da ƙarfen ƙarfe ko robobi masu wuya kuma suna da ƙarfi sosai. Hannun shebur yawanci ana yin su ne da itace (musamman taƙamaiman nau'ikan irin su ash ko maple ) ko filastik da aka ƙarfafa gilashin (fiberglass).

Wuraren shebur na hannu da aka yi da ƙarfen takarda yawanci suna da dunƙulewa ko kati a baya don yin soket don riƙe wa. Wannan ninka kuma yawanci yana ba da ƙarin rigidity ga ruwa. Hannun suna yawanci riveted a wuri. An fi dacewa da yanki na T-tsalle zuwa ƙarshen hannun don taimakawa riƙo da sarrafawa inda aka ƙera felu don motsi ƙasa da kayan nauyi. Waɗannan ƙirar za a iya samar da su cikin sauƙi.

Kalmar shebur kuma ta shafi manyan injunan haƙowa da ake kira shebur wutar lantarki, waɗanda ke yin aiki iri ɗaya - tono, ɗagawa, da kayan motsi. Ko da yake irin wannan injinan wutan lantarki na zamani kamar masu lodin gaba da na tona (ciki har da tarakta masu ɗauke da bokitin lodi a gefe ɗaya da kuma hodar bayan gida don tono da ajiye kayan a ɗayan) suna saukowa daga injin tururi suna yin irin wannan aikin ba a rarraba su a matsayin shebur.[ana buƙatar hujja]

An daidaita felun hannu don ayyuka da wurare daban-daban. Ana iya inganta su don ɗawainiya ɗaya ko ƙirƙira su azaman tsallake-tsallake ko daidaita masu yawan ayyuka . Suna da matukar amfani a harkar noma.

TarihiGyara

A cikin shekarun Neolithic kuma a baya, ana amfani da babban scapula na dabba (fadar kafadu) sau da yawa azaman ɗanyen shebur ko spade . [1] Ta wannan haɗin tsakanin igiyoyin kafaɗa da ƙwanƙwasa ne kalmomin spatula da spade duka suna da alaƙar asali da scapulas .[ana buƙatar hujja]

 
Ayyukan al'ada lokacin shebur abu daga ƙasa

Ƙirƙirar da aka ƙera na bututun da aka gina da niyya ya kasance ci gaba mai ban sha'awa. Tambura da hannu, sau da yawa a haɗe tare da tsinke, ita ce babbar hanyar haƙowa a cikin gini har zuwa injina ta hanyar injinan tururi da kayan aikin injin daga baya (masu haƙa kamar hotan baya da lodi ) sannu a hankali sun maye gurbin mafi yawan shebur na hannu. Haka abin yake game da tarihin haƙar ma'adinai da faɗuwar ruwa da yawan sarrafa kayayyaki a masana'antu irin su ƙera ƙarfe da tuƙi . Motocin titin jirgin kasa da dakunan kaya masu dauke da tama, gawayi, tsakuwa, yashi, ko hatsi galibi ana loda su da sauke su ta wannan hanya. Waɗannan masana'antu ba ko yaushe suna dogara kawai akan irin wannan aikin ba, amma irin wannan aikin ya kasance wani ɓangare na su a ko'ina. Har zuwa 1950s, shebur ɗin hannu na ɗaukar ma'aikata da yawa aiki. An sanya ƙungiyoyin ma'aikata da ake kira 'ƙungiyoyin ƙwadago' ga duk wani aikin tono ko sarrafa kayan da ake buƙata a kowane mako, kuma ɗaruruwan ko ɗaruruwan ma'aikata waɗanda ke da shebur ɗin hannu za su yi irin saurin tonowa ko sarrafa kayan da a yau galibi ana yin su da ƙarfi. ƙwararrun ma'aikata ke sarrafa su. Don haka farashin aiki, ko da lokacin da kowane ma'aikaci ba shi da ƙarancin albashi, ya kasance babban kuɗaɗen ayyuka. An danganta haɓakar kasuwancin galibi ga yawan aiki . Har yanzu sau da yawa ma a yau; amma a da ya ma fi haka. A cikin sarrafa kayan masana'antu da na kasuwanci, daga baya an maye gurbin shebur ɗin hannu ba kawai da masu lodi da na baya ba.

Ganin mahimmancin da farashin aikin hannu a cikin masana'antu a ƙarshen 19th da farkon ƙarni na 20th, "kimiyyar shebur" wani abu ne mai ban sha'awa ga masu haɓaka ilimin kimiyya kamar Frederick Winslow Taylor . [2] Taylor, tare da mayar da hankali kan lokaci da nazarin motsi, ya ɗauki sha'awar bambanta yawancin motsin aikin hannu zuwa matsayi mafi girma fiye da yadda wasu ke so. Manajoji ba za su damu da tantance shi ba (yiwuwar tsammanin cewa aikin hannu aiki ne mai sauƙi na hankali ), kuma ma'aikata ba za su damu da bincikar ta ba ta kowace hanya da ke ƙarfafa gudanarwa don ɗaukar haƙƙin aikin sana'a ga mai sana'a don yanke shawara. cikakkun bayanai na hanyoyinsa. Taylor ya gane cewa rashin yin nazarin aikin shebur yana wakiltar damar da aka rasa don ganowa ko haɗa mafi kyawun ayyuka don yin shebur, wanda zai iya samun mafi girman aiki (darajar dala da aka kashe). Ya kasance taylor da abokan aiki a cikin 1890s zuwa 1910 waɗanda suka faɗaɗa sosai game da wasu abubuwa daban-daban, ɗaya ga kowane abu, dangane da kayan abu, dangane da kayancin abu. A ƙarƙashin kulawar kimiyya, ba a yarda da yin amfani da felu iri ɗaya ba don bukar gawayi mai launin ruwan ƙasa wata rana da tsakuwa a gaba. Taylor ya ba da shawarar cewa mafi girman kuɗin da ake kashewa na kula da shebur biyu fiye da biyan kuɗin kanta ta hanyar haɓaka yawan aikin ma'aikata da zai haifar da shi, wanda ke nufin ƙarancin kuɗin da ake kashewa kan albashi ga kowane rukunin aikin shebur da aka cimma.

A lokacin juyin juya halin masana'antu na biyu a kusa da 1900, shebur ya ba da damar yin amfani da kayan aiki masu nauyi kamar injin tono .[ana buƙatar hujja]

Nau'ukanGyara

Hoto Suna



</br> (da ma'ana



</br> idan akwai)
Bayani
</img> shebur kwal Yawanci yana da faffadi, lebur ruwa tare da ɓangarorin juye-juye, lebur fuska da gajeriyar rikewa mai siffar D. A cikin shekaru, an yi amfani da nau'i-nau'i daban-daban don nau'o'in nau'i daban-daban ko maki na kwal .
</img> dusar ƙanƙara shebur Sau da yawa yana da faffadan ruwan wukake maras gefe wanda yake lanƙwasa sama a haɗe zuwa gajeriyar hannu tare da riko mai siffar D. Akwai nau'ikan salo iri-iri. Wasu an tsara su galibi don tura dusar ƙanƙara, wasu don ɗaga shi. Ruwa na iya zama karfe ko filastik.
</img> dusar ƙanƙara shebur



</br> dusar ƙanƙara



</br> shebur sleigh
babban kayan aiki mai zurfi mai kama da hopper wanda aka dace tare da madaidaicin madauki kuma an tsara shi don ɗaukar nauyin dusar ƙanƙara da zame shi ba tare da ɗagawa ba.
dusar ƙanƙara turawa
shebur hatsi



</br> sito shebur
Yana da babban, faffadan aluminium ko robobi a haɗe zuwa guntun katako mai ƙarfi tare da rikon D-dimbin yawa. Anyi don matsar da yawa na sako-sako da kayan haske. An yi samfuran farko gaba ɗaya daga itace, yawanci guda ɗaya.
cokali shebur Dogayen rikewa tare da ƙarami, oval, cupped, ledo mai karkata a ƙarshen, ana amfani da shi wajen haƙa mai zurfi, kunkuntar ramuka ko cire abu daga ƙarami, kamar daga tanki. Sunanta ya fito daga kamanninsa da cokali .
</img> aikin lambu Tufafi gabaɗaya ƙarami ne, kayan aikin hannu guda ɗaya don tono, ɗorawa, yaɗawa, ko kuma sarrafa kayan daskararru (kamar turmi ). A cikin aikin lambu da noma, suna da amfani wajen dasa shuki da tukwane don tono ramuka da wargajewar ƙasa. Wuraren aikin lambu yawanci suna da ƙarfi, kunkuntar ruwan wukake tare da maki masu kaifi. Su ƙananan nau'in spade ne.
</img> rufin shebur Kayan aiki na musamman na prying wanda ya samo asali daga amfani da cokali mai yatsu da cokali mai yatsa don cire tsohon shingles na rufin da abin da ke ƙasa a zaman wani ɓangare na gyaran rufin.
</img> spade Babban nau'in shebur da aka keɓance don haƙa ƙasa mai ƙarfi ko kayan motsi waɗanda ke tsayayya da wuri mai faɗi, kamar dakakken dutse. Yawancin spades suna da kaifi ko kusan gefuna, galibi ana siffa su azaman maki uku. (alamar spade, ♠, alama ce mai salo da aka samo daga wannan ra'ayin. ) Wasu magudanar ruwa suna da lebur, waɗanda aka keɓance su da yankan ciyawa da dashen ciyayi da ƙananan bishiyoyi; Madaidaicin injiniyoyin su na zamani daidai yake da tsinken bishiya .

Wasu ka'idojin amfani suna bambanta tsakanin "spade" (kayan aiki da ake amfani da su don huda da tono) da "shelu" (shafewa da motsi), amma babu wani bambanci.[ana buƙatar hujja]

</img> square shebur Babban nau'in shebur wanda ya haɗa nau'ikan nau'ikan da yawa tare da jimillar murabba'i gabaɗaya (maimakon a yi nuni da su kamar yawancin spades).
diba Babban nau'in shebur wanda ya haɗa nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan abinci gabaɗaya tare da sifar daɗaɗɗen abinci gabaɗaya ko kwanon rufi, kuma yawanci gefen murabba'i mai faɗi, wanda aka keɓance don ɗaukar kayan sako-sako.
</img> magudanar ruwa



</br> mai kaifi



</br> trenching shebur



</br> trenching spade
Gabaɗaya doguwar sirara mai tsayi mai faɗin gefen gefe. Ana amfani da shi don tono ramuka.
</img> entrenching kayan aiki Karamin babban shebur da sojoji da masu kashe gobara ke amfani da su; yawanci ana iya kullewa a kusurwar da za a yi amfani da su don yin fartanya, kamar yadda ake ƙirƙirar fashewar wuta .

Duba kumaGyara

  • Dustpan, wani nau'i na shebur

ambatoGyara

  1. Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology, p. 304.
  2. Taylor 1911, pp. 64–75.

Littafin littafin gabaɗayaGyara

  •  

Hanyoyin haɗi na wajeGyara

  •   Media related to Shovels at Wikimedia Commons