Kayan lambu sune sassan tsire-tsire waɗanda mutane ko wasu dabbobi ke cinye su azaman abinci. Ana amfani da ma'anar asali har yanzu ana amfani da shi ga tsire-tsire tare don alaƙa da duk abubuwan da ake amfani da shi na tsire-tsire, ciki har da furanni, 'ya'yan itatuwa, mai tushe, ganye, tushen, da tsaba. Ana amfani da mahimmin ma'anar kalmar kayan lambu da yar tsaye ba bisa ka'ida ba, galibi al'adun gargaji da al'adun gargajiya. Yana iya ware kayan abinci da aka samo daga wasu tsire-tsire wadanda suka kasance 'ya'yan itace, furanni, kwayoyi, da hatsi na hatsi, amma sun hada da' ya'yan itaciyar savory kamar tumatir da courgettes, furanni kamar su broccoli, da tsaba kamar su.

Kayan lambu a kasuwa a cikin Filipinas
tumatur

Asalinsu, an tattara kayan lambu daga daji daga mafarautan kuma suka shiga namo a yawancin sassan duniya, watakila a cikin lokacin 10,000 10,000 zuwa 7,000 BC, lokacin da sabon hanyar aikin gona ya bunkasa. Da farko, za a iya shuka ciyawar da ta girma a cikin gida, amma yayin da lokaci ya ci gaba, ciniki ya kawo kayan amfanin gona daga wani wuri don ƙara wa nau'in gida. A zamanin yau, yawancin kayan lambu suna girma a duk duniya kamar yadda izinin yanayi, kuma ana iya noma amfanin gona a cikin wurare masu kariya a wurare marasa dacewa. Kasar Sin ita ce mafi girma wajen samar da kayan lambu, kuma kasuwancin duniya a cikin kayan aikin gona yana ba masu amfani damar sayen kayan lambu da aka shuka a cikin kasashe masu nisa. Gwargwadon samarwa ya bambanta daga manoma mai wadatar abinci wanda ke wadatar da bukatun danginsu don abinci, zuwa matsanancin wahala na amfanin gona guda. Ya danganta da nau'in kayan lambu da ake damuwa, girbin amfanin gonar yana biyo bayan grading, adanawa, sarrafawa da tallatawa.

Za'a iya cin kayan lambu ko dai a dafa shi ko a dafa shi kuma yana taka muhimmiyar rawa a cikin abincin ɗan adam, yana da yawanci mai mai yawa da ƙwayar carbohydrates, amma yana da yawa a cikin bitamin, ma'adanai da fiber na abin da ake ci. Yawancin masana ilimin abinci suna ƙarfafa mutane don cin 'ya'yan itace da kayan marmari da yawa, kashi biyar ko sama da haka a kullun ana ba da shawarar su.

TarihiGyara


Kafin zuwan noma, mutane 'yan farauta ne. Sun tsorata don 'ya'yan itace da ake ci, kwayoyi, mai tushe, ganyayyaki, corms, da kuma karar, sun tsoratar da dabbobin da suka mutu da wadanda ke rayuwa don neman abinci. Tsarin gandun daji a cikin share gandun dajin yana zaton shine farkon misalin aikin gona; An gano nau'ikan tsire-tsire masu amfani kuma an ƙarfafa su don haɓaka yayin da aka cire nau'ikan da ba a ke so. Shuka shuka ta hanyar zaɓar nau'ikan kyawawan halaye kamar su 'ya'yan itace babba da haɓaka mai ƙarfi nan da nan. Yayin da aka samo tabbaci na farko game da ciyawar ciyawa kamar alkama da sha'ir a cikin Tsarin Tsira a Gabas ta Tsakiya, da alama mutane da yawa a duniya sun fara shuka amfanin gona a cikin 10,000 10,000 zuwa 7,000 BC. Tallafin aikin gona ya ci gaba har zuwa yau, tare da manoma da yawa na karkara a Afirka, Asiya, Kudancin Amurka, da sauran wurare suna amfani da filayen filayensu don samar da isasshen abinci ga iyalansu, yayin da kowane irin kayan abinci yake amfani da shi don musayar wasu kayayyaki.

Dukkanin tarihin da aka rubuta, attajirai sun sami damar wadatar abinci da dama da suka haɗa da nama, kayan marmari da 'ya'yan itace, amma ga talakawa, nama ya kasance abin alatu kuma abincin da suka ci ya zama maras wahala, galibi yana ƙunshe da kayan abinci da aka yi da shinkafa, hatsin rai , sha'ir, alkama, gero ko masara. Additionarin kayan lambu ya samar da wasu iri-iri ga abincin. Babban abincin Aztecs da ke Amurka ta Tsakiya shine masara kuma sun noma tumatir, avocados, wake, barkono, kabewa, kabewa, gyada, da kuma ƙwayar amaranth don ƙara azama da ƙwayoyin su. A cikin Peru, Incas ya dogara da masara a ƙananan kwari da dankali a tsaunuka masu yawa. Sun kuma yi amfani da tsaba daga quinoa, suna inganta abincinsu da barkono, tumatir, da avocados.

A tsohuwar kasar Sin, shinkafa ita ce babbar ciyawar a kudu kuma alkama a arewaci, ƙarshen da aka yi shi cikin magudanar abinci, noodles, da masara. Kayan lambu da ke biye da waɗannan sun haɗa da yummu, waken soya, wake da yawa, guna, albasa mai yadu, da tafarnuwa. Abincin tsohuwar Masarawa ta samo asali ne daga burodi, galibi yana gurɓata da yashi wanda yake hana haƙoransu. Nama ya kasance mai wadatarwa amma kifi ya fi yawa. Wadannan kayan sun hada da kayan marmari da dama da suka hada da marmara, wake mai yawa, lentil, albasa, leas, tafarnuwa, radishes, da letas.

Babban abincin abincin tsohuwar Girka shine gurasa, kuma wannan yana tattare da cukuwan akuya, zaitun, fig, kifi, da kuma lokaci-lokaci nama. Kayan kayan lambu sun hada da albasa, tafarnuwa, alkama, guna, da lentil. A cikin tsohuwar Roma, an sanya garin shinkafa mai kauri irin alkama ko wake, tare da kayan lambu amma ƙananan nama, da kifi ba su da daraja. Romawa sun girma wake masu yawa, gyada, albasa da toyaran ci kuma sun ci ganyen beets maimakon asalinsu.

Wasu kayan marmari na yau da kullunGyara

Some common vegetables
Image Species Parts used Origin Cultivars Kayan duniya

(×106 tons, 2012)[1]

  Brassica oleracea leaves, axillary buds, stems, flower heads Europe cabbage, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, broccoli, kale, kohlrabi,

red cabbage, Savoy cabbage, Chinese broccoli, collard greens

70.1
  Brassica rapa root, leaves Asia turnip, Chinese cabbage, napa cabbage, bok choy
  Raphanus sativus root, leaves, seed pods, seed oil, sprouting Southeastern Asia radish, daikon, seedpod varieties
  Daucus carota root, leaves, stems Persia carrot 36.9[n 1]
  Pastinaca sativa root Eurasia parsnip
  Beta vulgaris root, leaves Europe and Near East beetroot, sea beet, Swiss chard, sugar beet
  Lactuca sativa leaves, stems, seed oil Egypt lettuce, celtuce 24.9
  Phaseolus vulgarisPhaseolus coccineusPhaseolus lunatus pods, seeds Central and South America green bean, French bean, runner bean, haricot bean, Lima bean 44.6[n 2]
  Vicia faba pods, seeds Mediterranean and Middle East broad bean
  Pisum sativum pods, seeds, sprouts Mediterranean and Middle East pea, snap pea, snow pea, split pea 28.9[n 2]
  Solanum tuberosum tubers South America potato 365.4
  Solanum melongena fruits South and East Asia eggplant (aubergine) 48.4
  Solanum lycopersicum fruits South America tomato, see list of tomato cultivars 161.8
  Cucumis sativus fruits Southern Asia cucumber, see list of cucumber varieties 65.1
  Cucurbita spp. fruits, flowers Mesoamerica pumpkin, squash, marrow, zucchini (courgette), gourd 24.6
  Allium cepa bulbs, leaves Asia onion, spring onion, scallion, shallot, see list of onion cultivars 87.2[n 2]
  Allium sativum bulbs Asia garlic 24.8
  Allium ampeloprasum leaf sheaths Europe and Middle East leek, elephant garlic 21.7
  Capsicum annuum fruits North and South America pepper, bell pepper, sweet pepper 34.5[n 2]
  Spinacia oleracea leaves Central and southwestern Asia spinach 21.7
  Dioscorea spp. tubers Tropical Africa yam 59.5
  Ipomoea batatas tubers, leaves, shoots Central and South America sweet potato, see list of sweet potato cultivars 108.0
  Manihot esculenta tubers South America cassava 269.1
  1. Includes both carrots and turnips.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Productions of dry and green vegetables added up.

Nutrition and healthGyara

 
Kayan lambu (da wasu fruitan itace) na siyarwa a kan titi a Guntur, Indiya

Kayan lambu suna taka muhimmiyar rawa a cikin abincin mutane. Yawancinsu suna da ƙarancin mai da adadin kuzari amma sun yi yawa kuma suna cikewa. Suna samar da fiber na abinci kuma sune tushen mahimmancin bitamin, ma'adanai, da abubuwan da aka gano. Musamman mahimmanci sune bitamin antioxidant A, C, da E. Lokacin da aka hada kayan lambu a cikin abincin, an sami raguwar cutar kansa, bugun jini, cututtukan zuciya, da sauran cututtukan cututtukan fata. Bincike ya nuna cewa, idan aka kwatanta da mutane waɗanda ke ci ƙasa da uku na 'ya'yan itatuwa da kayan marmari a kowace rana, waɗanda ke cin abinci sama da sau biyar, suna da kusan kashi ashirin cikin ƙananan haɗarin kamuwa da cututtukan zuciya ko bugun jini. Abubuwan da ke cikin abinci mai mahimmanci na kayan lambu sun bambanta da yawa; wasu suna ɗauke da ƙwayoyin furotin masu amfani kodayake yawanci suna ɗauke da mai mai yawa, da abubuwa masu yawa dabam dabam kamar su Vitamin A, Vitamin K, da Vitamin B6; maganin zalunci; ma'adinai na abinci; da kuma carbohydrates.

Koyaya, kayan lambu sau da yawa ma suna da gubobi da antinutrients waɗanda ke tsoma baki tare da ɗaukar abubuwan gina jiki. Waɗannan sun haɗa da α-solanine, α-chaconine, enzyme inhibitors (na cholinesterase, protease, amylase, da sauransu), cyanide da kuma abubuwan ƙirar cyanide, oxalic acid, tannins da sauransu. kwari, da masu farauta da fungi wadanda zasu iya kai hari ga shuka. Wasu wake suna dauke da phytohaemagglutinin, kuma tushen roba yana dauke da glycoside cyanogenic kamar yadda ake yin harbe-harbe. Wadannan gubobi ana iya kashe su ta hanyar girkin da ya dace. Ganyen dankali ya ƙunshi glycoalkaloids kuma ya kamata a guji shi.

'Ya'yan itace da kayan marmari, musamman kayan lambu, an shanye su a cikin kusan rabin cututtukan gastrointestinal da ke haifar da noroirus a Amurka. Waɗannan abinci ana cin abinci da yawa ɗanɗani ne kuma mai yiwuwa ya ƙazantu yayin shirye-shiryen abincin da ke ɗauke da cutar. Tsabtacewa yana da mahimmanci yayin sarrafa abinci da za a ci da shi, kuma irin waɗannan samfuran suna buƙatar tsabtace da kyau, sarrafa su, da adana su don iyakance gurɓataccen aiki.[2][3][4][5]

ManazartaGyara