Kayan lambu a kasuwa a cikin Filipinas
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Kayan lambu sune sassan tsire-tsire waɗanda mutane ko wasu dabbobi ke cinye su azaman abinci. Ana amfani da ma'anar asali har yanzu ana amfani da shi ga tsire-tsire tare don alaƙa da duk abubuwan da ake amfani da shi na tsire-tsire, ciki har da furanni, 'ya'yan itatuwa, mai tushe, ganye, tushen, da tsaba. Ana amfani da mahimmin ma'anar kalmar kayan lambu da yar tsaye ba bisa ka'ida ba, galibi al'adun gargaji da al'adun gargajiya. Yana iya ware kayan abinci da aka samo daga wasu tsire-tsire wadanda suka kasance 'ya'yan itace, furanni, kwayoyi, da hatsi na hatsi, amma sun hada da' ya'yan itaciyar savory kamar tumatir da courgettes, furanni kamar su broccoli, da tsaba kamar su.

Asalinsu, an tattara kayan lambu daga daji daga mafarautan kuma suka shiga namo a yawancin sassan duniya, watakila a cikin lokacin 10,000 10,000 zuwa 7,000 BC, lokacin da sabon hanyar aikin gona ya bunkasa. Da farko, za a iya shuka ciyawar da ta girma a cikin gida, amma yayin da lokaci ya ci gaba, ciniki ya kawo kayan amfanin gona daga wani wuri don ƙara wa nau'in gida. A zamanin yau, yawancin kayan lambu suna girma a duk duniya kamar yadda izinin yanayi, kuma ana iya noma amfanin gona a cikin wurare masu kariya a wurare marasa dacewa. Kasar Sin ita ce mafi girma wajen samar da kayan lambu, kuma kasuwancin duniya a cikin kayan aikin gona yana ba masu amfani damar sayen kayan lambu da aka shuka a cikin kasashe masu nisa. Gwargwadon samarwa ya bambanta daga manoma mai wadatar abinci wanda ke wadatar da bukatun danginsu don abinci, zuwa matsanancin wahala na amfanin gona guda. Ya danganta da nau'in kayan lambu da ake damuwa, girbin amfanin gonar yana biyo bayan grading, adanawa, sarrafawa da tallatawa.

Za'a iya cin kayan lambu ko dai a dafa shi ko a dafa shi kuma yana taka muhimmiyar rawa a cikin abincin ɗan adam, yana da yawanci mai mai yawa da ƙwayar carbohydrates, amma yana da yawa a cikin bitamin, ma'adanai da fiber na abin da ake ci. Yawancin masana ilimin abinci suna ƙarfafa mutane don cin 'ya'yan itace da kayan marmari da yawa, kashi biyar ko sama da haka a kullun ana ba da shawarar su.

TarihiGyara


Kafin zuwan noma, mutane 'yan farauta ne. Sun tsorata don 'ya'yan itace da ake ci, kwayoyi, mai tushe, ganyayyaki, corms, da kuma karar, sun tsoratar da dabbobin da suka mutu da wadanda ke rayuwa don neman abinci. Tsarin gandun daji a cikin share gandun dajin yana zaton shine farkon misalin aikin gona; An gano nau'ikan tsire-tsire masu amfani kuma an ƙarfafa su don haɓaka yayin da aka cire nau'ikan da ba a ke so. Shuka shuka ta hanyar zaɓar nau'ikan kyawawan halaye kamar su 'ya'yan itace babba da haɓaka mai ƙarfi nan da nan. Yayin da aka samo tabbaci na farko game da ciyawar ciyawa kamar alkama da sha'ir a cikin Tsarin Tsira a Gabas ta Tsakiya, da alama mutane da yawa a duniya sun fara shuka amfanin gona a cikin 10,000 10,000 zuwa 7,000 BC. Tallafin aikin gona ya ci gaba har zuwa yau, tare da manoma da yawa na karkara a Afirka, Asiya, Kudancin Amurka, da sauran wurare suna amfani da filayen filayensu don samar da isasshen abinci ga iyalansu, yayin da kowane irin kayan abinci yake amfani da shi don musayar wasu kayayyaki.

Dukkanin tarihin da aka rubuta, attajirai sun sami damar wadatar abinci da dama da suka haɗa da nama, kayan marmari da 'ya'yan itace, amma ga talakawa, nama ya kasance abin alatu kuma abincin da suka ci ya zama maras wahala, galibi yana ƙunshe da kayan abinci da aka yi da shinkafa, hatsin rai , sha'ir, alkama, gero ko masara. Additionarin kayan lambu ya samar da wasu iri-iri ga abincin. Babban abincin Aztecs da ke Amurka ta Tsakiya shine masara kuma sun noma tumatir, avocados, wake, barkono, kabewa, kabewa, gyada, da kuma ƙwayar amaranth don ƙara azama da ƙwayoyin su. A cikin Peru, Incas ya dogara da masara a ƙananan kwari da dankali a tsaunuka masu yawa. Sun kuma yi amfani da tsaba daga quinoa, suna inganta abincinsu da barkono, tumatir, da avocados.

A tsohuwar kasar Sin, shinkafa ita ce babbar ciyawar a kudu kuma alkama a arewaci, ƙarshen da aka yi shi cikin magudanar abinci, noodles, da masara. Kayan lambu da ke biye da waɗannan sun haɗa da yummu, waken soya, wake da yawa, guna, albasa mai yadu, da tafarnuwa. Abincin tsohuwar Masarawa ta samo asali ne daga burodi, galibi yana gurɓata da yashi wanda yake hana haƙoransu. Nama ya kasance mai wadatarwa amma kifi ya fi yawa. Wadannan kayan sun hada da kayan marmari da dama da suka hada da marmara, wake mai yawa, lentil, albasa, leas, tafarnuwa, radishes, da letas.

Babban abincin abincin tsohuwar Girka shine gurasa, kuma wannan yana tattare da cukuwan akuya, zaitun, fig, kifi, da kuma lokaci-lokaci nama. Kayan kayan lambu sun hada da albasa, tafarnuwa, alkama, guna, da lentil. A cikin tsohuwar Roma, an sanya garin shinkafa mai kauri irin alkama ko wake, tare da kayan lambu amma ƙananan nama, da kifi ba su da daraja. Romawa sun girma wake masu yawa, gyada, albasa da toyaran ci kuma sun ci ganyen beets maimakon asalinsu.

Wasu kayan marmari na yau da kullunGyara

Some common vegetables
Image Species Parts used Origin Cultivars Kayan duniya

(×106 tons, 2012)[1]

  Brassica oleracea leaves, axillary buds, stems, flower heads Europe cabbage, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, broccoli, kale, kohlrabi,

red cabbage, Savoy cabbage, Chinese broccoli, collard greens

70.1
  Brassica rapa root, leaves Asia turnip, Chinese cabbage, napa cabbage, bok choy
  Raphanus sativus root, leaves, seed pods, seed oil, sprouting Southeastern Asia radish, daikon, seedpod varieties
  Daucus carota root, leaves, stems Persia carrot 36.9[n 1]
  Pastinaca sativa root Eurasia parsnip
  Beta vulgaris root, leaves Europe and Near East beetroot, sea beet, Swiss chard, sugar beet
  Lactuca sativa leaves, stems, seed oil Egypt lettuce, celtuce 24.9
  Phaseolus vulgarisPhaseolus coccineusPhaseolus lunatus pods, seeds Central and South America green bean, French bean, runner bean, haricot bean, Lima bean 44.6[n 2]
  Vicia faba pods, seeds Mediterranean and Middle East broad bean
  Pisum sativum pods, seeds, sprouts Mediterranean and Middle East pea, snap pea, snow pea, split pea 28.9[n 2]
  Solanum tuberosum tubers South America potato 365.4
  Solanum melongena fruits South and East Asia eggplant (aubergine) 48.4
  Solanum lycopersicum fruits South America tomato, see list of tomato cultivars 161.8
  Cucumis sativus fruits Southern Asia cucumber, see list of cucumber varieties 65.1
  Cucurbita spp. fruits, flowers Mesoamerica pumpkin, squash, marrow, zucchini (courgette), gourd 24.6
  Allium cepa bulbs, leaves Asia onion, spring onion, scallion, shallot, see list of onion cultivars 87.2[n 2]
  Allium sativum bulbs Asia garlic 24.8
  Allium ampeloprasum leaf sheaths Europe and Middle East leek, elephant garlic 21.7
  Capsicum annuum fruits North and South America pepper, bell pepper, sweet pepper 34.5[n 2]
  Spinacia oleracea leaves Central and southwestern Asia spinach 21.7
  Dioscorea spp. tubers Tropical Africa yam 59.5
  Ipomoea batatas tubers, leaves, shoots Central and South America sweet potato, see list of sweet potato cultivars 108.0
  Manihot esculenta tubers South America cassava 269.1
  1. Includes both carrots and turnips.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Productions of dry and green vegetables added up.

Nutrition and healthGyara

 
Kayan lambu (da wasu fruitan itace) na siyarwa a kan titi a Guntur, Indiya

Kayan lambu suna taka muhimmiyar rawa a cikin abincin mutane. Yawancinsu suna da ƙarancin mai da adadin kuzari amma sun yi yawa kuma suna cikewa. Suna samar da fiber na abinci kuma sune tushen mahimmancin bitamin, ma'adanai, da abubuwan da aka gano. Musamman mahimmanci sune bitamin antioxidant A, C, da E. Lokacin da aka hada kayan lambu a cikin abincin, an sami raguwar cutar kansa, bugun jini, cututtukan zuciya, da sauran cututtukan cututtukan fata. Bincike ya nuna cewa, idan aka kwatanta da mutane waɗanda ke ci ƙasa da uku na 'ya'yan itatuwa da kayan marmari a kowace rana, waɗanda ke cin abinci sama da sau biyar, suna da kusan kashi ashirin cikin ƙananan haɗarin kamuwa da cututtukan zuciya ko bugun jini. Abubuwan da ke cikin abinci mai mahimmanci na kayan lambu sun bambanta da yawa; wasu suna ɗauke da ƙwayoyin furotin masu amfani kodayake yawanci suna ɗauke da mai mai yawa, da abubuwa masu yawa dabam dabam kamar su Vitamin A, Vitamin K, da Vitamin B6; maganin zalunci; ma'adinai na abinci; da kuma carbohydrates.

Koyaya, kayan lambu sau da yawa ma suna da gubobi da antinutrients waɗanda ke tsoma baki tare da ɗaukar abubuwan gina jiki. Waɗannan sun haɗa da α-solanine, α-chaconine, enzyme inhibitors (na cholinesterase, protease, amylase, da sauransu), cyanide da kuma abubuwan ƙirar cyanide, oxalic acid, tannins da sauransu. kwari, da masu farauta da fungi wadanda zasu iya kai hari ga shuka. Wasu wake suna dauke da phytohaemagglutinin, kuma tushen roba yana dauke da glycoside cyanogenic kamar yadda ake yin harbe-harbe. Wadannan gubobi ana iya kashe su ta hanyar girkin da ya dace. Ganyen dankali ya ƙunshi glycoalkaloids kuma ya kamata a guji shi.

'Ya'yan itace da kayan marmari, musamman kayan lambu, an shanye su a cikin kusan rabin cututtukan gastrointestinal da ke haifar da noroirus a Amurka. Waɗannan abinci ana cin abinci da yawa ɗanɗani ne kuma mai yiwuwa ya ƙazantu yayin shirye-shiryen abincin da ke ɗauke da cutar. Tsabtacewa yana da mahimmanci yayin sarrafa abinci da za a ci da shi, kuma irin waɗannan samfuran suna buƙatar tsabtace da kyau, sarrafa su, da adana su don iyakance gurɓataccen aiki.

ProductionGyara

CultivationGyara

 
Growing vegetables in South Africa
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Fresh vegetables from garden in Croatia

Vegetables have been part of the human diet from time immemorial. Some are staple foods but most are accessory foodstuffs, adding variety to meals with their unique flavors and at the same time, adding nutrients necessary for health. Some vegetables are perennials but most are annuals and biennials, usually harvested within a year of sowing or planting. Whatever system is used for growing crops, cultivation follows a similar pattern; preparation of the soil by loosening it, removing or burying weeds, and adding organic manures or fertilisers; sowing seeds or planting young plants; tending the crop while it grows to reduce weed competition, control pests, and provide sufficient water; harvesting the crop when it is ready; sorting, storing, and marketing the crop or eating it fresh from the ground.[2]

Different soil types suit different crops, but in general in temperate climates, sandy soils dry out fast but warm up quickly in the spring and are suitable for early crops, while heavy clays retain moisture better and are more suitable for late season crops. The growing season can be lengthened by the use of fleece, cloches, plastic mulch, polytunnels, and greenhouses.[2] In hotter regions, the production of vegetables is constrained by the climate, especially the pattern of rainfall, while in temperate zones, it is constrained by the temperature and day length.[3]

 
Weeding cabbages in Colorado, US

On a domestic scale, the spade, fork, and hoe are the tools of choice while on commercial farms a range of mechanical equipment is available. Besides tractors, these include ploughs, harrows, drills, transplanters, cultivators, irrigation equipment, and harvesters. New techniques are changing the cultivation procedures involved in growing vegetables with computer monitoring systems, GPS locators, and self-steer programs for driverless machines giving economic benefits.[3]

HarvestingGyara

 
Harvesting beetroot in the United Kingdom

When a vegetable is harvested, it is cut off from its source of water and nourishment. It continues to transpire and loses moisture as it does so, a process most noticeable in the wilting of green leafy crops. Harvesting root vegetables when they are fully mature improves their storage life, but alternatively, these root crops can be left in the ground and harvested over an extended period. The harvesting process should seek to minimise damage and bruising to the crop. Onions and garlic can be dried for a few days in the field and root crops such as potatoes benefit from a short maturation period in warm, moist surroundings, during which time wounds heal and the skin thickens up and hardens. Before marketing or storage, grading needs to be done to remove damaged goods and select produce according to its quality, size, ripeness, and color.[4]

StorageGyara

All vegetables benefit from proper post harvest care. A large proportion of vegetables and perishable foods are lost after harvest during the storage period. These losses may be as high as thirty to fifty percent in developing countries where adequate cold storage facilities are not available. The main causes of loss include spoilage caused by moisture, moulds, micro-organisms, and vermin.[5]

 
Temporary storage of potatoes in the Netherlands

Storage can be short-term or long-term. Most vegetables are perishable and short-term storage for a few days provides flexibility in marketing. During storage, leafy vegetables lose moisture, and the vitamin C in them degrades rapidly. A few products such as potatoes and onions have better keeping qualities and can be sold when higher prices may be available, and by extending the marketing season, a greater total volume of crop can be sold. If refrigerated storage is not available, the priority for most crops is to store high-quality produce, to maintain a high humidity level, and to keep the produce in the shade.[4]

Proper post-harvest storage aimed at extending and ensuring shelf life is best effected by efficient cold chain application.[6] Cold storage is particularly useful for vegetables such as cauliflower, eggplant, lettuce, radish, spinach, potatoes, and tomatoes, the optimum temperature depending on the type of produce. There are temperature-controlling technologies that do not require the use of electricity such as evaporative cooling.[7] Storage of fruit and vegetables in controlled atmospheres with high levels of carbon dioxide or high oxygen levels can inhibit microbial growth and extend storage life.[8]

The irradiation of vegetables and other agricultural produce by ionizing radiation can be used to preserve it from both microbial infection and insect damage, as well as from physical deterioration. It can extend the storage life of food without noticeably changing its properties.[9]

PreservationGyara

The objective of preserving vegetables is to extend their availability for consumption or marketing purposes. The aim is to harvest the food at its maximum state of palatability and nutritional value, and preserve these qualities for an extended period. The main causes of deterioration in vegetables after they are gathered are the actions of naturally-occurring enzymes and the spoilage caused by micro-organisms.[10] Canning and freezing are the most commonly used techniques, and vegetables preserved by these methods are generally similar in nutritional value to comparable fresh products with regards to carotenoids, vitamin E, minerals. and dietary fiber.[11]

 
Bean field and canning factory, New Jersey, US

Canning is a process during which the enzymes in vegetables are deactivated and the micro-organisms present killed by heat. The sealed can excludes air from the foodstuff to prevent subsequent deterioration. The lowest necessary heat and the minimum processing time are used in order to prevent the mechanical breakdown of the product and to preserve the flavor as far as is possible. The can is then able to be stored at ambient temperatures for a long period.[10]

Freezing vegetables and maintaining their temperature at below −10 °C (14 °F) will prevent their spoilage for a short period, whereas a temperature of −18 °C (0 °F) is required for longer-term storage. The enzyme action will merely be inhibited, and blanching of suitably sized prepared vegetables before freezing mitigates this and prevents off-flavors developing. Not all micro-organisms will be killed at these temperatures and after thawing the vegetables should be used promptly because otherwise, any microbes present may proliferate.[12]

 
Sun-drying tomatoes in Greece

Traditionally, sun drying has been used for some products such as tomatoes, mushrooms, and beans, spreading the produce on racks and turning the crop at intervals. This method suffers from several disadvantages including lack of control over drying rates, spoilage when drying is slow, contamination by dirt, wetting by rain, and attack by rodents, birds, and insects. These disadvantages can be alleviated by using solar powered driers.[5] The dried produce must be prevented from reabsorbing moisture during storage.[10]

High levels of both sugar and salt can preserve food by preventing micro-organisms from growing. Green beans can be salted by layering the pods with salt, but this method of preservation is unsuited to most vegetables. Marrows, beetroot, carrot, and some other vegetables can be boiled with sugar to create jams.[10] Vinegar is widely used in food preservation; a sufficient concentration of acetic acid prevents the development of destructive micro-organisms, a fact made use of in the preparation of pickles, chutneys and relishes.[10] Fermentation is another method of preserving vegetables for later use. Sauerkraut is made from chopped cabbage and relies on lactic acid bacteria which produce compounds that are inhibitory to the growth of other micro-organisms.[7]

Top producersGyara

 
Farmers' market showing vegetables for sale near the Potala Palace in Lhasa, Tibet
 
Vegetable shop in India
 
Vegetables in a supermarket in the United States

In 2010, China was the largest vegetable producing nation, with over half the world's production. India, the United States, Turkey, Iran, and Egypt were the next largest producers. China had the highest area of land devoted to vegetable production, while the highest average yields were obtained in Spain and the Republic of Korea.[13]


https://www.dw.com/image/16687924_303.jpg

https://img-global.cpcdn.com/recipes/1e0a6c6e233cc83d/751x532cq70/yankakun-kayan-miya-da-kayan-lambu-ainihin-hoton-girkin.jpg

https://www.vegetables.co.nz/vegetables-a-z/

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V3VMhj6LkKI

I will edit better in a week.

  1. "FAOSTAT Query page". Archived from the original on 2015-09-06. Retrieved 2015-09-16.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help) Aggregate data: may include official, semi-official or estimated data
  2. 2.0 2.1 Brickell, Christopher, ed. (1992). The Royal Horticultural Society Encyclopedia of Gardening. Dorling Kindersley. pp. 303–08. ISBN 978-0-86318-979-1. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 Field, Harry; Solie, John (2007). Introduction to Agricultural Engineering Technology: A Problem Solving Approach. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 978-0-387-36915-0. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 Dixie, Grahame (2005). "8. Post-harvest handling: Storage". Horticultural Marketing. FAO. Retrieved 2015-03-21. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 Garg & Prakash; Garg, H.P. (2000). Solar Energy: Fundamentals and Applications. Tata McGraw-Hill Education. p. 191. ISBN 978-0-07-463631-2. 
  6. Kohli, Pawanexh (2008) "Why Cold Chain for Vegetables" in Fruits and Vegetables Post-Harvest Care: The Basics. Crosstree Techno-visors
  7. 7.0 7.1 Sinha, Nirmal; Hui, Y.H.; Evranuz, E. Özgül; Siddiq, Muhammad; Ahmed, Jasim (2010). Handbook of Vegetables and Vegetable Processing. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 192, 352. ISBN 978-0-470-95844-5. 
  8. Thompson, A. Keith (2010). Controlled Atmosphere Storage of Fruits and Vegetables. CABI. p. 18. ISBN 978-1-84593-647-1. 
  9. de Zeeuw, Dick. "Use of nuclear energy to preserve man's food". International Atomic Energy Agency. Retrieved 2015-03-22. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 Home preservation of Fruit and Vegetables. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. 1968. pp. 1–6. 
  11. Rickman, Joy C.; Bruhn, Christine M.; Barrett, Diane M. (2007). "Nutritional comparison of fresh, frozen, and canned fruits and vegetables II. Vitamin A and carotenoids, vitamin E, minerals and fiber". Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 87 (7): 1185–96. doi:10.1002/jsfa.2824. 
  12. Hui, Y.H.; Ghazala, Sue; Graham, Dee M.; Murrell, K.D.; Nip, Wai-Kit (2003). Handbook of Vegetable Preservation and Processing. CRC Press. pp. 286–90. ISBN 978-0-203-91291-1. 
  13. "Table 27 Top vegetable producers and their productivity". FAO Statistical Yearbook 2013. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. p. 165. Retrieved 2015-09-14.