Carl Linnaeus (/lɪˈniːəs,lˈneɪəs/; [1][2] 23 Mayu 1707-10 Janairu 1778), wanda kuma aka sani bayan daukakarsa a 1761 kamar yadda Carl von Linné [3] (furuci a harshen Sweden: [ˈkɑːɭfɔnlɪˈneː] ya kasance masanin tsirrai ne dan kasar Sweden, dabbobi, masanin rabe-raben itace, kuma likita wanda ya fito da tsarin binomial nomenclature, tsarin zamani na sanyawa kwayoyin halittu suna. Ana masa laƙabi da "baban ilimin rabe-raben tsirra - father of modern taxonomy". [4] Yawancin rubuce-rubucensa da harshen Latin ne; An fassara sunansa a harshen Latin da Carolus Linnæus sannan kuma bayan girmamashi da akayi a 1761, an mayar da sunan Carolus a Linné.

Karl Linnaeus
Rayuwa
Cikakken suna Carl Nilsson Linnaeus
Haihuwa Råshult (en) Fassara, 23 Mayu 1707
ƙasa Sweden
Harshen uwa Swedish (en) Fassara
Mutuwa Linnaeus Hammarby (en) Fassara da Uppsala (en) Fassara, 10 ga Janairu, 1778
Makwanci Uppsala Cathedral (en) Fassara
Ƴan uwa
Mahaifi Nils Ingemarsson Linnaeus
Mahaifiya Christina Brodersonia
Abokiyar zama Sara Elisabeth Moræa (en) Fassara
Yara
Ahali Anna Maria Linnæ (en) Fassara, Emerentia Branting (en) Fassara, Sofia Juliana Collin (en) Fassara da Samuel Linnaeus (en) Fassara
Yare Linné family (en) Fassara
Karatu
Makaranta Lund University (en) Fassara
(1727 - : medicine (en) Fassara
Uppsala University (en) Fassara
(1728 - : medicine (en) Fassara
University of Harderwijk (en) Fassara
(1735 - 1735) Doctor of Medicine (en) Fassara : medicine (en) Fassara
Matakin karatu Doctor of Medicine (en) Fassara
Thesis director Olof Rudbeck the Younger (en) Fassara
Johannes Gorter (en) Fassara
Dalibin daktanci Fredrik Hasselquist (en) Fassara
Carl Peter Thunberg (en) Fassara
Anders Sparrman (en) Fassara
Peter Forsskål (en) Fassara
Anton Rolandsson Martin (en) Fassara
Alexander von Karamyschew (en) Fassara
Matvey Afonin (en) Fassara
Harsuna Harshen Latin
Swedish (en) Fassara
Malamai Lars Roberg (en) Fassara
Olof Celsius (en) Fassara
Ɗalibai
Sana'a
Sana'a geologist (en) Fassara, Farfesa, botanist (en) Fassara, likita, autobiographer (en) Fassara, biologist (en) Fassara, mycologist (en) Fassara, pteridologist (en) Fassara, bryologist (en) Fassara, zoologist (en) Fassara, entomologist (en) Fassara, ornithologist (en) Fassara, naturalist (en) Fassara, arachnologist (en) Fassara da mineralogist (en) Fassara
Wurin aiki Uppsala (en) Fassara da Stockholm
Employers Uppsala University (en) Fassara
Muhimman ayyuka Systema Naturae (en) Fassara
Species Plantarum (en) Fassara
Genera Plantarum (en) Fassara
Fundamenta Botanica (en) Fassara
Critica Botanica (en) Fassara
Bibliotheca Botanica (en) Fassara
Amoenitates Academicae (en) Fassara
Hortus Cliffortianus (en) Fassara
Musa Cliffortiana (en) Fassara
Methodus (en) Fassara
Praeludia Sponsaliorum Plantarum (en) Fassara
Kyaututtuka
Mamba Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences (en) Fassara
German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina (en) Fassara
Royal Society (en) Fassara
Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences (en) Fassara
Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences (en) Fassara
Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters (en) Fassara
Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Letters (en) Fassara
French Academy of Sciences (en) Fassara
American Philosophical Society (en) Fassara
Imani
Addini Church of Sweden (en) Fassara

An haifi Linnaeus a Råshult, ƙauyen Småland, da ke kudancin Sweden. Ya sami mafi yawan karatunsa a Jami'ar Uppsala kuma ya fara ba da laccoci a fannin ilimin halittu a can a cikin shekarar 1730. Ya zauna a kasashen waje tsakanin 1735 zuwa 1738, inda ya nazarci kuma ya wallafa littafinsa na farkon wato Systema Naturae a can kasar Netherlands. Daga nan ya koma Sweden inda ya zama farfesa a fannin likitanci da ilmin halittu a Uppsala. A cikin shekarar 1740s, an aika shi tafiye-tafiye da dama a Sweden don nemo ilimin da kuma rarraba shuke-shuke da dabbobi. A cikin shekarar 1750s da 1760s, ya ci gaba da tattarawa da rarraba dabbobi, tsirrai, da ma'adanai, yayin da yake buga shafuka da dama. Ya kasance daya daga cikin fitattun masana kimiyya a Turai a lokacin mutuwarsa.

Masanin falsafa Jean-Jacques Rousseau ya aika masa da sako cewa: "Ku gaya masa ban san wani mutum da ya fi girma ba a duniya."[5] Johann Wolfgang von Goethe ya rubuta: "In ban da Shakespeare da Spinoza, Ban san wani daga cikin wadanda ba su da rai wanda ya rinjaye ni sosai ba."[5] Marubucin Sweden August Strindberg ya rubuta: "Linnaeus ya kasance a matuƙa mawaƙin da ya zamo masanin halittu."[6] Ana kiran Linnaeus Princeps botanicorum (Yariman Ilimin Tsirrai wato - Prince of Botanists) sannan kuma "Pliny of the north". [7] Ana kuma daukansa a matsayin daya daga cikin wadanda suka kafa ilimin halittu na zamani.[8]

Karl Linnaeus

A cikin ilimin halittu da dabbobi, ana amfani da harafin L. don nuna da Linnaeus a matsayin wanda ya samo sunan wani jinsi.[9] A tsofaffin wallafe-wallafe kuwa, ana amfani da lakanin "Linn." don nuna aikinsa. Har yanzu Linnaeus ya kasance nau'in samfuri mai wakiltan kansa a nazarin Homo sapiens ta hanyar bin ka'idar rarraba dabbobi na duniya, tun da samfurin da aka san yayi bincike akansa shine kansa. [note 1]

Ƙuruciya

gyara sashe
 
Wurin Haihuwa a Råshult.

An haifi Linnaeus a ƙauyen Råshult a Småland, Sweden, a ranar 23 ga watan Mayu 1707. Shi ne ɗan fari ga Nicolaus (Nils) Ingemarsson (wanda daga baya ya karɓi sunan iyalin Linnaeus) da mahaifiyarsa Christina Brodersonia. 'Yan uwansa su ne Anna Maria Linnæa, Sofia Juliana Linnæa, Samuel Linnæus (wanda zai gaji mahaifinsu a matsayin shugaban makarantan Stenbrohult kuma ya rubuta littafin kula da kiwon zuma),[10] [11] [12] sai kuma Emerentia Linnæa.[13] Mahaifinsa ya koya masa harshen Latin tun yana ƙarami.

Daga dangin manoma da firistoci, Nils kwararre ne mai son kiwo, mai hidimar Lutheran, kuma mai kula da karamin kauyen Stenbrohult a Småland. Christina 'yar shugaban Stenbrohult ce, Samuel Brodersonius. [14]

Shekara guda bayan haihuwar Linnaeus, kakansa Samuel Brodersonius ya mutu, kuma mahaifinsa Nils ya zama shugaban Stenbrohult. Iyalin sunyi ƙaura zuwa gidan malamai. [15] [16]

Tun yana da kananan shekarunsa, Linnaeus ya kasance mai sha'awar tsirrai, musamman furanni. Duk lokacin da yayi fushi sai a ba shi fure, nan take hankalinsa zai kwanta. Nils yakan kwashe lokaci mai tsawo a gonarsa kuma yakan nuna wa Linnaeus furanni sannan kuma ya gaya masa sunayensu. Ba da da dewa ba aka ba wa Linnaeus fili inda zai rika shuke-shuke. [17]

Mahaifin Carl shine na farko a cikin zuriyarsa da ya fara ɗaukan suna na dindindin. Kafin wannan, kakanninsa suna amfani ne da tsarin suna na ƙasashen Scandinavia: an sanya wa mahaifinsa mai suna Ingemarsson bayan mahaifinsa Ingemar Bengtsson. Lokacin da aka shigar da Nils a Jami'ar Lund, dole nesai ya ɗauki sunan iyali. Ya karɓi sunan Latin na Linnæus bayan wata katuwar itacen linden (wato itacen lemun tsami), lind. a yaren mutanen Sweden, iccen da ya girma a farfajiyar gidansu. [10] Lokacin da aka haifi Carl, anyi masa lakabi da Carl Linnæus, tare da sunan mahaifinsa. ana kuma rubutashi a harde da harafin æ, a cikin littattafai da aka rubuta da hannu da kuma wadanda aka wallafa. [15] Mahaifin Carl zai kasance Nilsson, yayinda sunan Carl zai kasancekamar Carl Nilsson Linnæus.[18]

Ilimin farko

gyara sashe

Mahaifin Linnaeus ya fara koya masa ainihin harshen Latin, addini, da labarin kasa tun yana ƙarami.[19] Lokacin da Linnaeus yana ɗan shekara bakwai, Nils ya yanke shawarar ɗaukar masa malami. Iyayen sun ɗauki Johan Telander, ɗa ga wani manomi. Linnaeus ba ya son shi, ya rubuta a cikin tarihin rayuwarsa cewa Telander "ya fi dacewa da kashe basirar yaro fiye da bunkasa ta". [20]

 
Karl Linnaeus

Shekaru biyu bayan an fara koyar da shi, an tura shi zuwa makarantar adabi ta Grammar School da ke a Växjö a shekara ta 1717. [21] Linnaeus ba kasafai yayi karatu ba, sau da yawa yana zuwa karkara don neman tsirrai. A wani lokaci, mahaifinsa yakan ziyarce shi, sannan, bayan ya ji soke-soke daga masu kula da shi, ya yanke shawarar sanya matashin a matsayin ɗan koyo ga wani ma'aikacin gaskiya.[22]

Manazarta

gyara sashe
  1. "Linnaeus". CollinsDictionary.com. HarperCollins.
  2. "Linnaeus, Carolus" in the Oxford Dictionaries Online.
  3. Blunt (2004), p. 171.
  4. Calisher, CH (2007). "Taxonomy: what's in a name? Doesn't a rose by any other name smell as sweet?" . Croatian Medical Journal . 48 (2): 268–270. PMC 2080517 . PMID 17436393 .Empty citation (help)
  5. 5.0 5.1 "What people have said about Linnaeus". Linné on line. Uppsala University. Archived from the original on 8 June 2011. Retrieved 3 October 2011.
  6. "Linnaeus deceased". Linné on line. Uppsala University. Retrieved 3 October 2011.
  7. Broberg (2006), p. 7.
  8. Egerton, Frank N. (2007). "A History of the Ecological Sciences, Part 23: Linnaeus and the Economy of Nature". Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America. 88 (1): 72–88. doi:10.1890/0012-9623(2007)88[72:AHOTES]2.0.CO;2.
  9. "Linnaeus, Carl (1707–1778)". Author Details. International Plant Names Index. Retrieved 1 October 2011.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Blunt (2004), p. 12.
  11. Stöver (1794), p. 8.
  12. Broberg (2006), p. 10.
  13. "Nicolaus Linnæus". Geni. Retrieved 27 January2016.
  14. Fries (2011), p. 376.
  15. 15.0 15.1 Blunt (2004), p. 13.
  16. Quammen (2007), p. 1.
  17. Blunt (2004), p. 15.
  18. Gribbin, M., & Gribbin, J. (2008). Flower hunters. Oxford University Press, USA. Pg. 29. ISBN 0199561826
  19. Thomson, Thomas (2011) [1812]. History of the Royal Society From Its Institution to the End of the Eighteenth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 35. ISBN 978-1-108-02815-8.
  20. Blunt (2004), pp. 15–16.
  21. Stöver (1794), p. 5.
  22. Caddy, Florence (1887). Through the Fields with Linnaeus: A Chapter in Swedish History. Little, Brown, and Company. p. 43. Retrieved 10 April 2021.


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