Ikrimata ibn Abi Jahl

Ikrima ibn Abi Jahl Amr Ibn Hisham ( Larabci: عكرمة بن أبي جهل‎, romanized: ʿIkrima ibn Abī Jahl  ; 634 ko 636) ya kasance babban abokin hamayya da ya zama abokin Annabin Musulunci Muhammad (S A W) kuma kwamandan musulmi a yakin Ridda da mamayar Syria . Ya mutu a lokacin Yaƙin Yarmouk .

Simpleicons Interface user-outline.svg Ikrimata ibn Abi Jahl
عكرمة بن عمرو بن هشام بن المغيرة بن عبد الله بن عمر بن مخزوم بن يقظة.png
Rayuwa
Haihuwa Makkah, 598 (Gregorian)
ƙungiyar ƙabila Larabawa
Mutuwa Yarmouk River (en) Fassara, 636 (Gregorian)
Yan'uwa
Abokiyar zama Ummu Hakim
Sana'a
Sana'a Shugaban soji
Aikin soja
Ya faɗaci Badar
Yakin Yarmuk
Imani
Addini Musulunci

Rayuwar shiGyara

 
Ikirama ibn abi Jahal

Mahaifin Ikrima shi ne Amr dan Hisham dan al-Mughira, shugaban wata kungiyar kabila ta Kuraishawa ta mutan Makhzum wanda Musulmi suke kira "Abu Jahl" (mahaifin jahiliyya) saboda tsananin adawarsa ga annabin Islama Muhammadu . An kashe mahaifin Ikrima yana yakar Musulmi a yakin Badar a shekarar 624. [1] A yakin Uhud, inda Kuraishawa suka ci Musulmai, Ikrima ya umarci bangaren hagu na bangaren hagu; dan uwansa Khalid dan al-Walid ya ba da umarnin bangaren dama. [2] Rashin Makhzum a Badar ya rage tasirinsu kuma ya ba da damar ga Mutan Abd Shams ƙarƙashin Abu Sufyan don karɓar ragamar a kan Muhammad. [1] Koyaya, tasirin Ikrima, wanda a wancan lokacin babban mashahurin shugaban Makhzum, a Makka ya karu zuwa ƙarshen 620s. [1] Ya nuna adawa ga tattaunawar da aka yi da Muhammad a Hudaybiyya kuma ya warware yarjejeniyar lokacin da shi da wasu Kuraishawa suka kai wa Banu Khuza'a hari. Lokacin da Muhammad ya ci Makka da yaƙi a 630, Ikrima ya tsere a matsayin ɗan gudun hijira zuwa Yemen inda Makhzum ke da alaƙar kasuwanci. [1]

Daga baya Muhammad (S A W) ya yi afuwa ga Ikrima, [3] a bayyane bayan matar Ikrima da dan uwan mahaifinta na farko Umm Hakim bint al-Harith, wadanda suka musulunta suka shigar da kara. [4] A cewar masanin tarihi al-Waqidi, Muhammad ya nada Ikrima a matsayin mai karbar haraji na kungiyar kungiyar Hawazin a shekarar 632. Ikrima tana cikin yankin Tihama tsakanin Yemen da Makka lokacin da Muhammad ya mutu. [4] A cewar Blankinship, bayan ya musulunta, Ikrima ya dukufa ga sabon addinin sa "mafi yawan kuzarin da ya nuna adawarsa da farko" ga Musulunci. [5] Bayan rasuwar Muhammad, babban makusancin annabin Islama Abu Bakr ya zama khalifa (shugaban al'ummar musulmin) kuma ya nada Ikrima don jagorantar kamfen din adawa da kabilun Larabawa masu tawaye a yakin Ridda (632-633), wanda ya gan shi yana ba da umarnin balaguro a kewayen. duk yankin Larabawa, [5] tare da mayar da hankali musamman a Yemen. [1] Zuwa 634, Abu Bakr ya sake sanya Ikrima da rundunarsa, wadanda suka fito daga Tihama, arewacin Yemen, Bahrayn da Oman, don sake karfafa rundunar Khalid a yakin da Musulmi suka ci Siriya . [5] Ikrima watakila an kashe shi ne yana yakar Rumawa a yakin Ajnadayn a Falasdinu a shekara ta 634, duk da cewa ana kuma iya cewa an kashe shi a yakin Yarmouk a shekara ta 636. [1] [5]

IyaliGyara

A cewar masanin tarihi al-Ya'qubi (a shekara ta 898), Ikrima ya auri Qutayla bint Qays bin Ma'dikarib, 'yar'uwar shugaban gidan Kindite Banu Mu'awiya, al-Ash'ath bin Qays . An aiko ta daga Yemen don ta auri Muhammad amma ta zo ne bayan annabin Islama ya mutu sannan daga baya aka aurar da ita ga Ikrima. [6] Hadisai na Musulunci galibi sun yarda Ikrima ya mutu bai haihu ba, kodayake masanin tarihi na ƙarni na 8 Sayf ibn Umar ya ambaci ɗa mai suna Amr da Ibn Hazm (wanda ya mutu a shekara ta 1064), mai yiwuwa ne ya samo bayanansa daga Sayf, ya kira wannan ɗan Umar. [5] Masanin tarihin Michael Michael Lecker ya tabbatar da cewa auren Ikrima da Qutayla ya zama matsala ga malaman musulmai daga baya kamar yadda aka hana sake auren matan Muhammad. [7] Lecker yana riƙe da al'adar Islama ta ƙididdige ainihin rahoton da marubutan musulmai na gargajiya suka yi amfani da shi cewa Qutayla ta haifa Ikrima "ɗa mai rauni", wanda ya ɗauka a matsayin "mafi amintacce". [7] Ikrima ta kuma auri Asma bint al-Nu'man bn Abi al-Jawn, wata matar kirki daga Muhammadu wacce ba a ta da auren ta ba. Ya aure ta bayan ɗan gajeren aure da dangin Ikrima dangin Makhzumite al-Muhajir bn Abi Umayya . [3] Matar Ikrima Ummu Hakim ta auri khalifa Umar ( r . 634–644 ) wani lokaci bayan mutuwar Ikrima.

Duba kumaGyara

  • Laqit bin Malik Al-Azdi, abokin gaba
  • Jerin yakokin Muhammadu

ManazartaGyara

1. ^ a b c d Hinds 1991 , p. 139.

2. ^ Umari 1991 , pp. 53–54.

3. ^ Donner 1993 , p. 53, note 340.

4. ^ Landau-Tasseron 1998 , p. 17.

5. ^ Landau-Tasseron 1998 , p. 19.

6. ^ Blankinship 1993 , p. 77, note 443.

7. ^ a b Blankinship 1993 , pp. 77–78, note 443.

8. ^ a b Hinds 1991 , p. 138.

9. ^ Blankinship 1993 , pp. 77–78.

10. ^ Gordon et al. 2018 , p. 697.

11. ^ Blankinship 1993 , p. 99, note 535.

12. ^ a b Lecker 1998 , p. 20.

13. ^ Donner 1993 , p. 185 note 1131, 190 note 1156.



 

BibliographyGyara

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Hinds 1991.
  2. Umari 1991.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Donner 1993.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Landau-Tasseron 1998.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Blankinship 1993.
  6. Gordon et al. 2018.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Lecker 1998.