Hamada yanki ne na fili wanda ba a samun hazo sosai kuma, sakamakon haka, yanayin rayuwa ya kasance abin ƙyama ga tsirrai da na dabbobi. Rashin ciyayi yana fallasa yanayin da ba a kiyaye shi ba a cikin tsarin ƙarar. Kimanin kashi ɗaya bisa uku na farfajiyar ƙasa ƙasa ta bushe ko rabin-ƙasa.[1]

wata Sahara ko kuma hamada a ƙasar Egypt
farin Sahara/hamada

SamuwaGyara

Ana samar da hamada ta hanyar aukuwar weathering yayin da manyan canje -canje a yanayin zafi tsakanin dare da rana ke sanya damuwa a kan duwatsu, wanda a sakamakon haka ya fashe. Ko da yake ba kasafai ake samun ruwan sama a cikin jeji ba, amma ana samun ruwan sama na lokaci -lokaci wanda zai iya haifar da ambaliyar ruwa.[2] Ruwan sama a kan duwatsu masu zafi na iya sa su farfashe, sakamakon gutsuttsuran da ɓarna da aka yaɗa a kan hamadar iska na ƙara lalata su. Wannan yana ɗaukar barbashi na yashi da ƙura, waɗanda za su iya kasancewa cikin iska na dogon lokaci – wani lokacin yana haifar da samuwar guguwar yashi ko guguwar kura. Gurasar yashi mai iska da ke bugun duk wani abu mai ƙarfi a tafarkin su na iya rage farfajiKalamar deser a Turane wato hamada da kuma ta Romance cognates (ciki har da Italian da Portuguese deserto, Faransa hamada da kuma Spanish desierto) duk zo daga ecclesiastical Latin dēsertum (asali "wani watsi da wuri"), a participle na dēserere, "to bari". Haɗin kai tsakanin rashin ƙarfi da yawan jama'a yana da rikitarwa kuma mai ƙarfi, ya bambanta da al'ada, zamanin, da fasaha; don haka amfani da kalmar hamada na iya haifar da rudani.[3] A cikin Ingilishi kafin karni na 20, galibi ana amfani da hamada a cikin ma'anar "yanki mara yawan jama'a", ba tare da takamaiman magana game da rashin ƙarfi ba;  amma a yau kalmar galibi ana amfani da ita a mahangar ilimin yanayi-yanki (yanki na ƙarancin hazo). Kalmomi kamar "tsibirin hamada" da "Babban Hamada ta Amurka", ko kuma "hamada na Shakespeare na Bohemia " (The Winter's Tale) a cikin ƙarni da suka gabata ba lallai bane ya nuna yashi ko ƙura; abinda suka fi mayar da hankali shi ne yawan jama'a.[4]

kalan ciyayi da suke fitowa a sahara

Kalu baleGyara

Hamada dai na zaman wani babban kalubale dake tunkarar kasar hausa a wannan zamanin, ganin Yadda ake cigaba da sare bishiyoyi batare da kokarin dasa wadansu ba, wannan ya kara kawo mana matsalar ruwa a rafuka, koguna da rijiyoyi da dama. Ba anan abun ya tsaya ba hatta amfanin gona wasu da yawa sun tashi daga yankin saboda zaizayar kasa da take kwashe albarkatun kasa, wanda yanzu haka ambaliyar ruwa ma a duk shekara ta kan yi ma garuruwan kasar hausa da yawa barazana saboda cikewar da matattarar ruwaye ta yi a yankin.[5]

A mahangar GeographyGyara

Hamada yanki ne na ƙasar da ta bushe sosai saboda tana samun ƙarancin hazo (galibi a cikin ruwan sama, amma yana iya zama dusar ƙanƙara, hazo ko hazo), galibi ba ta da ƙarancin ɗaukar hoto ta tsire-tsire, kuma a cikinta rafuffuka ke bushewa, sai dai idan an kawo musu ruwa daga wajen yankin.[6] Gabaɗaya hamada suna karɓar ƙasa da 250 millimetres (10 in) na hazo a kowace shekara. Mai yuwuwar watsa ruwa na iya zama babba amma (idan babu ruwan da ake samu) ainihin ƙaƙƙarfan iskar na iya zama kusan sifili. Semi-hamada sune yankuna waɗanda ke karɓar tsakanin 250 and 500 millimetres (10 and 20 in) kuma lokacin da aka lulluɓe cikin ciyawa, waɗannan ana kiransu steppes.[7]

ManazartaGyara

  1. Harper, Douglas (2012). "Desert". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 2013-05-12
  2. Desert". The Free Dictionary. Farlex. Retrieved 2013-05-12
  3. Desert Island". The Free Dictionary. Farlex. Retrieved 2013-05-12
  4. Meinig, Donald W. (1993). The Shaping of America: A Geographical Perspective on 500 Years of History, Volume 2: Continental America, 1800–1867. Yale University Press. p. 76. ISBN 978-0-300-05658-7.
  5. a b Marshak (2009). Essentials of Geology, 3rd ed. W.W. Norton & Co. p. 452. ISBN 978-0-393-19656-6
  6. Precipitation and evapotranspiration" (PDF). Routledge. Retrieved 19 October 2017.
  7. a b Smith, Jeremy M. B. "Desert". Encyclopædia Britannica online. Retrieved 2013-09-24.