Cibiyar tarihi ta Córdoba

Cibiyar tarihi ta Córdoba, Spain na ɗaya daga cikin mafi girma irin sa a Turai. A cikin 1984, UNESCO ta yi rajistar Masallaci – Cathedral na Cordoba a matsayin Gidan Tarihi na Duniya. Bayan shekaru goma, ya faɗaɗa rubutun ya haɗa da yawancin tsohon garin.[1] Cibiyar tarihi tana da tarin abubuwan tarihi da ke adana manyan alamomin zamanin Roman, Larabci, da Kiristanci.

Tarihin bayaGyara

Da farko wani ƙauyen Carthaginian, Romawa sun kama Cordoba a cikin 206 BC, ba da daɗewa ba ya zama babban birnin Hispania Citerior tare da kyawawan gine-gine tare da kafa garu. A cikin karni na 6, tare da rugujewar daular Roma, birnin ya fada hannun Visigoths har zuwa farkon karni na 8 lokacin da Moors suka mamaye shi. A cikin 716, Cordoba ta zama babban birnin lardi kuma, a cikin 766, hedkwatar masarautar musulmi ta al-Andalus. A karni na 10, a matsayin Halifancin Cordoba, ta zama ɗaya daga cikin manyan biranen duniya, waɗanda aka sani da al'adu, koyo da kuma jurewar addini. Baya ga wani katon dakin karatu, birnin ya rufe masallatai sama da 300 da dimbin fadoji da gine-ginen gudanarwa.[2][3]

A shekara ta 1236, Sarki Ferdinand na III ya kama birnin, ya gina sabbin tsare-tsare kuma ya mayar da Babban Masallacin babban coci. Birnin Kirista ya girma a kusa da babban coci tare da manyan fada, majami'u, da kagara. Ko da yake birnin ya rasa muhimmancinsa na siyasa a ƙarƙashin mulkin Kirista, ya ci gaba da taka muhimmiyar rawa a kasuwanci albarkacin ma'adinan Sierra Morena da ke kusa.[2][3]

Iyakokin yankiGyara

 
Daya daga cikin niƙa na Guadalquivir.

Cibiyar tarihi kamar yadda UNESCO ta ayyana ta ƙunshi gine-gine da kuma kunkuntar titunan da ke kewaye da babban cocin. Tana iyaka da kudu ta Kogin Guadalquivir don haɗawa da gadar Roman da Hasumiyar Calahorra, a gabas ta Calle San Fernando, kuma a arewa ta cibiyar kasuwanci. A yamma, ya haɗa da Alcázar da gundumar San Basilio.[3]

Abubuwan tunawaGyara

Ana iya ganin shaidar zamanin Romawa a gada mai tsayi 16 a kan Guadalquivir, mosaics a cikin Alcázar, ginshiƙan haikalin Romawa, da ragowar bangon Romawa. Baya ga Bakin Halifa, tasirin Moorish a cikin ƙirar birni yana bayyana a cikin lambunan Alcázar da ke kusa da tsohon Masallacin Harami. Minarets daga lokacin sun tsira a cikin majami'u na Santiago, San Lorenzo, San Juan da Santa Clara Hermitage. Ana iya ganin kasancewar Yahudawa a lokacin mulkin Musulmai a gundumar La Judería inda aka yi amfani da majami'a har zuwa 1492.[3]

Alcázar, asalin gidan sarauta na Moorish, an daidaita shi don zama wurin zama ga sarakunan Kirista a ƙarni na 14 yayin da Hasumiyar Calahorra, da Almohads suka gina, Sarki Henry II ya sake yin aikin gabaɗaya a 1369.[4] ƙaramin Chapel na San Bartolomé ya kasance. An kammala shi a cikin salon Gothic-Mudéjar a cikin 1410. Asalin coci, tsohon Asibitin San Sebastián, yanzu Cibiyar Majalisa, an kammala shi a cikin 1516 a hade da tsarin Gothic, Mudéjar da Renaissance.[5] Sauran majami'u daga lokacin sun haɗa da San Nicolás da San Francisco.[3]

Hakanan akwai wasu mahimman gine-gine na ƙarni na 16 da suka haɗa da Seminary San Pelagio, Puerta del Puente, da Palacio del Marqués de la Fuensanta del Valle wanda Hernán Ruiz ya tsara.[6] Hakanan abin lura shine Asibitin del Cardenal Salazar na ƙarni na 18 tare da facade na Baroque.[7]

Sauran abubuwan tarihi na tarihi a cikin tsohon garin sun hada da Fadar Episcopal da aka gina akan ragowar tsohuwar fadar Visigoth kuma yanzu gidan kayan tarihi na Diocesan Fine Arts,[8] da Royal Stables wanda Sarki Philip II ya gina a 1570 a matsayin wani bangare na Alcázar.[9]

HotunaGyara

ManazartaGyara

  1. "Historic Centre of Cordoba". UNESCO. Retrieved 29 December 2013.
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Córdoba en la Historia" (in Sifaniyanci). Córdoba: Patrimonio de la Humanidad. Archived from the original on 8 November 2013. Retrieved 30 December 2013.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 "Historic Centre of Cordoba". UNESCO. Retrieved 30 December 2013.
  4. "Torre de la Calahorra". Córdoba24. Retrieved 30 December 2013.
  5. "El Hospital de San Sebastián" (in Sifaniyanci). Artencordoba.com. Retrieved 30 December 2013.
  6. "Conservatorio Superior de Música Rafael Orozco de Córdoba" (in Sifaniyanci). Gobierno de España. Retrieved 30 December 2013.
  7. "Hospital del Cardenal Salazar, Córdob" (in Sifaniyanci). Córdoba: ciudad de encuentro. Archived from the original on 29 December 2015. Retrieved 30 December 2013.
  8. "Episcopal Palace". Córdoba: ciudad de encuentro. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 30 December 2013.
  9. "Royal Stables". Córdoba: ciudad de encuentro. Archived from the original on 13 March 2016. Retrieved 30 December 2013.