Alurar rigakafi shiri ne na ƙirar halitta wanda ke ba da cikakkiyar damar samun rigakafi ga wani kamuwa da cuta. Alurar rigakafi yawanci tana dauke da wakili wanda yayi kama da cutar microorganism. Ana yin sa sau da yawa daga nau'ikan ƙananan ƙwayoyin cuta, da gubobi, ko ɗayan na sunadarai na farfajiya. Wakilin yana karfafa tsarin garkuwar jiki don sanin wakili a matsayin barazana, rusa shi, kuma don kara ganewa da kuma lalata duk wasu kwayoyin halittar da ke hade tare da shi a nan gaba. Ba da wani magani ana kiranta alurar riga kafi. Alurar riga kafi ita ce hanya mafi inganci ta hana kamuwa da cuta;[1] Alurar riga kafi galibi alhakin kawar da kịtịfe da kuma raguwar cututtuka kamar su, Polio, da tetanus. Alurar riga kafi wanda ke da ingantaccen tasiri ya hada da allurar rigakafin[2], maganin HPV[3], da kaji,maganin alurar riga kafi. Sharuɗɗan rigakafin da alurar riga kafi an samo su ne daga iolaungiyoyin jeji na Variolae (furucin saniya), ajalin da Edward Jenner ya kirkiro.[4]

ana digawa yaro allurar rigakafi
Alluran rigakafi
Typhoid inoculation2.jpg
subclass oftreatment, Active immunotherapy Gyara
has effectactive immunity Gyara
opposite ofantibody injection Gyara
usesvaccine, injection Gyara

TasiriGyara

Alurar rigakafi wata hanya ce mai aminci da ingantacciyar hanyar yaƙi da kawar da cututtuka.[5][6][7][8] Koyaya, iyakancewar tasirin su yana wanzu.[9] Ingancin tasiri ko aikin maganin ya dogara da dalilai da yawa:

  • Cutar kanta (ga wasu cututtuka alurar riga kafi fiye da sauran)
  • The irin alurar rigakafi (wasu alurar riga kafi takamaiman ne ko ingantacce a kan musamman nau'in cutar).[10]
  • Whether ko an kiyaye jadawalin rigakafin yadda yakamata.
  • Ba da amsa ga maganin rigakafi; wasu mutane ba su amsa da kyau ga waɗansu magungunan rigakafi.
  • Abubuwa masu rarrabuwa kamar ƙabila, shekara, ko kuma abubuwan gado.

Idan mutum da aka yi wa allurar rigakafi ya ci gaba da cutar da ke rigakafin cutar kansa watakila cutar ba ta da kazanta sosai fiye da mutanen da ba a yi wa rigakafin ba.[11] Abubuwan da suke da kyau suna la'akari da tasiri a cikin shirin tsarin rigakafi:[12]

  1. Yin hankali da hankali don hango tasirin da kamfen ɗin rigakafi zai yi matsakaici zuwa lokaci mai tsawo.
  2. ci gaba da sa ido kan cutar da ta dace.
  3. tsadar matakan rigakafi, koda kuwa wata cuta ta zama da wuya.

Alurar rigakafi ta haifar da kawar da kịtịfe, ɗaya daga cikin cututtukan da ke yaduwa da cututtuka masu yaduwa a cikin mutane.[13] Sauran cututtukan kamar su rubella, polio, kyanda, kumburi, kumburi, da kuma cutar sanƙarau ce ba kamar yadda aka saba ba kamar shekara ɗari da suka gabata saboda alurar rigakafi. Idan mafi yawan mutane suna alurar riga kafi, yana da matukar wahala ga barkewar cutar zuwa faruwa ko yaduwa. Wannan shi ake kira rigakafin garken garken. Magungunan rigakafin kuma suna taimakawa hana haɓakar ƙwayoyin rigakafi. Misali, ta hanyar ragewa abin da ya faru da ciwon huhu wanda ya haifar da ƙwayar huhun huhun ciki, shirye-shiryen allurar rigakafi sunada rage yawan kamuwa da cuta wadanda ke tsayayya da maganin penicillin ko wasu maganin rigakafi.[14] An kiyasta allurar rigakafin cutar kyanda ta hana mutum mutuwa miliyan 1 a duk shekara.[15]

Tasirin sakamakoGyara

Alurar riga kafi wanda aka bayar yayin ƙuruciya bashi da wata matsala.[16] Sakamakon illa, idan akwai, gabaɗaya m.[17] Sakamakon sakamako na yau da kullun sun haɗa da zazzabi, jin zafi a kusa da wurin allura, da ciwon gwiwa.[17] Bugu da ƙari, wasu mutane na iya zama rashin lafiyan kayan abinci a cikin allurar.[18] Cututtukan da ke tattare da mummunan sakamako suna da mutuƙar wahala.[16]

Nau'inGyara

Alurar rigakafi sun ƙunshi matattun abubuwa ko ƙwayoyin rai ko kayan tsarkakakke waɗanda aka samo daga gare su. Akwai nau'ikan alluran rigakafin da ake amfani da su..[19]

Ba a kunnawaGyara

Wasu alluran rigakafin suna dauke da kwayoyin halittar da aka lalata tare da sunadarai, zafi, ko radadi.[20] Misalai sun hada da rigakafin cutar shan inna, rigakafin cutar hepatitis A, alurar rigakafi da wasu alurar rigakafi.[21]

AttenuatedGyara

Wasu magungunan rigakafi suna ɗauke da ƙwayoyin rai, waɗanda aka rage ƙwayoyin cuta. Wadannan yawanci suna tsoratar da mafi dorewa immunological immage, amma maiyuwa ba amintaccen amfani a cikin immunocompromised mutane.

ToxoidGyara

Magungunan Toxoid ana yin su ne daga ƙwayoyin guba masu guba waɗanda ke haifar da rashin lafiya maimakon hakan kwayoyin.[22]

SubinitGyara

Magungunan ƙananan kwayoyi suna amfani da guntu na ƙwayoyin cuta don ƙirƙirar amsawar rigakafi.

SandaGyara

Wasu kwayoyin cuta suna da polysaccharide suttura na waje wadanda ke da rauni immunogenic. Ta hanyar cudanya Wadannan riguna na waje don sunadarai, tsarin na rigakafi na iya gane polysaccharide kamar maganin sunadarai ne.

GwajiGyara

Yawancin sababbin rigakafin rigakafin suma a yanzu haka suna cikin ci gaba kuma ana amfani da su. Yawancin allurar rigakafin ana ƙirƙirar su ta amfani da ƙwayoyin cuta marasa ƙarfi ko abubuwan ɓoyewa daga kwayoyin. Magungunan roba na rigakafi an haɗa su ne ko gaba ɗaya na abubuwan roba.

RikiciGyara

Alurar rigakafi na iya zama abu mai ma'ana ko taɓarɓarewa. An tsara allurar rigakafin rigakafi a kan kwayoyi ko ƙwayoyin cuta ɗaya.[23] An tsara allurar rigakafi don yi rigakafin cutar iri biyu ko sama da wannan ƙwayoyin cuta guda ɗaya, ko akasin biyu ko fiye microorganisms.[24]

HeterotypicGyara

Waɗannan rigakafin ne da ke amfani da cuta na wasu dabbobi waɗanda ko dai ba sa haifar da cuta ko haifar da cuta mai laushi cikin kwayoyin da ake bi.

Inganta rigakafiGyara

Tsarin rigakafi yana ɗaukar masu ba da maganin alurar rigakafi azaman ƙasashen waje, yana lalata su, kuma "ya tuna"su. Lokacin da aka sami nau'in virulent na wakili, jiki yana gane kwayar cutar kuma an shirya ya amsa:

  1. ta hanyar cire wakilin da aka yi niyya kafin ya shiga sel;
  2. ta hanyar ganewa da kuma lalata ƙwayoyin cutar kafin waccan wakilin ta iya ƙaruwa.

Adjuvants da abubuwan kiyayewaGyara

Alurar riga kafi yawanci suna ɗauke da adjuvants ɗaya ko fiye, waɗanda ke haɓakawa da hanzarta mayar da martani na rigakafi. Kuma alurar riga kafi na iya samun abubuwan kiyayewa don hana cuta tare da kwayoyin cuta ko fungi.

JadawalinGyara

Don samar da kariya mafi kyau, an bada shawarar yara don karɓar rigakafin kamar da zaran an inganta tsarin rigakafinsu ta yadda ya dace da takamaiman maganin.
Ana buƙatar ƙarin ƙarin "booster" Shots don cimma "cikakkiyar rigakafi". Wannan ya haifar da da ci gaba na hadaddun alurar jadawalin.
Yawancin allurar rigakafin ana bada shawarar don wasu tsararraki ko don maimaita allura cikin rayuwa. Don Misali, game da kyanda, tetanus, mura, da ciwon huhu. Shawarwarin alurar don tsofaffi sun mai da hankali kan cutar huhu da mura.

TarihiGyara

Kafin gabatarwar alurar rigakafin cuta tare da abu daga abubuwan da ake amfani da su a cikin mahaifa, za a iya kasancewa da katun an hana shi ta hanyar lalata kwayoyin cuta da gangan. Da farko farkon alamu na A cikin ƙarni na 10, inoculation ba game da fulawa a cikin kasar Sin ya zo ba.[25] A ƙarshen 1760s Edward Jenner ya sami labarin cewa ma'aikatan kiwo ba su taɓa samun fitsari ba domin suna ya rigaya ya samarda maganin cutar sankara. A cikin 1796, Jenner ya ɗauki kwari daga hannun madara da Cutar fata, ta sanya shi a cikin wani yaro mai shekaru 8, kuma makonni shida bayan haka sun kamu da yaron tare da fulawa.[26][27] Bai kama karamar fulawa ba. Jenner ya kara karatunsa kuma a cikin 1798 bayar da rahoton cewa maganin shi bashi da lafiya ga yara da manya. Na biyu na alluran rigakafin an gabatar dashi a cikin 1880s daga Louis Pasteur. Karnin nan na ashirin ya ga bullar sabbin magunguna masu nasara, gami da wadancan da cututtukan fata, kyanda, da daskararru, da kuma daskararru. Manyan nasarorin sun hada da ci gaba na rigakafin cutar Polio a cikin shekarun 1950 da kuma kawar da fitsari a shekarun 1960 zuwa 1970. Maurice Hilleman ya kasance mafi yawan masu haɓaka alluran rigakafin a karni na ashirin. Yawancin ci gaban allurar rigakafin har zuwa yau sun dogara da tallafi daga gwamnati, jami'o'i da ƙungiyoyi masu zaman kansu. Yawancin magungunan rigakafi sun kasance masu tsada matuƙar tasiri da amfani ga lafiyar jama'a.[28] Yawan alluran rigakafin da aka gudanar ya karu sosai a kwanan nan shekarun da suka gabata.[29] Ari ga haka, ana yin amfani da rigakafin dabbobi don su hana cututtukan su da kuma hana yada cutar ga mutane.[30]

Batun mallakaGyara

Saka bayanan kwastomomi kan hanyoyin inganta alurar riga kafi na iya zama cikas ga ci gaban sababbin alurar rigakafi. Saboda ƙarancin kariya da aka bayar ta ha patentso ,in mallaka, kariyar sabon abu ne sau da yawa ana yin ta hanyar haƙƙin ci gaba kamar yadda ya kamata kariya ta sirri.[31] A cewar Kungiyar Lafiya ta Duniya, babbar matsala ce ta hana samar da maganin alurar riga kafi a ciki ƙasashe masu ƙarancin ci gaba shine mahimmancin kuɗi, kayayyakin more rayuwa, da ƙwarewar ma'aikata bukatun[32] da ake buƙata don shigar da kasuwa.

Tsarin isarwaGyara

Haɓaka sabbin hanyoyin isar da saƙo na tasar da begen alluran rigakafin lafiya da ƙari ingantacce don sadar da gudanarwa. Abubuwa masu mahimmanci game da fasahar isar da rigakafi sun haɗa da allurar rigakafi. Cutar shan inna rigakafi ya tabbatar da inganci lokacin da masu aikin sa kai ke gudanar da su ba tare da horo na yau da kullun ba.[33] Wata gwaji mara-amfani ana yin gwajin dabbobi.[34][35] Wani facin tambari mai kama da bandeji mai ɗaure ciki ya ƙunshi tsinkayar ƙirar 20,000 a kowace murabba'in cm.[36]

YanayiGyara

Ci gaban alurar riga-kafi yana da yanayi da yawa:[37]

  • Until Har zuwa kwanan nan, yawancin rigakafin an yi niyya ne ga jarirai da yara, amma matasa kuma Ana ƙara yin niyya da manya.[37] [38]
  • Com vaccin es vaccin Haɗi na rigakafi ya zama gama gari. [37]
  • Ana kirkiro sabbin hanyoyin bayar da rigakafi.[37]
  • Ana yin allurar rigakafi don taɓar da martanin rigakafin halittu, da mai daidaitawa.[37]
  • Ana yin gwaji don samar da alluran rigakafin cututtukan cututtukan daji.[37]
  • Ana yin allurar rigakafi don kare kai daga harin dabbobi.[37]
  • Now Masana kimiyya yanzu suna ƙoƙarin kirkirar allurar rigakafi ta hanyar sake ginawa waje tsarin kwayar cuta. Wannan zai taimaka wajen magance juriya.[39]

ReferencesGyara

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